Friday Sermon – Khalifatul Masih V – Mirza Masroor Ahmad – Year 2022
Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah
I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah Come to Prayer Come to Prayer Come to success Come to success Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest There is none worthy of worship except Allah Peace and blessings of Allah be upon you.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. He is One and has no partner. and I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His Servant and Messenger. After this I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the accursed. In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, The Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we implore for help. Guide us in the right path – The path of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy blessings,
Those who have not incurred displeasure, and those who have not gone astray. In the previous Friday sermon, I mentioned that the accounts in relation to the apostates, or the hypocrites during the battle of Yamama and (the details) with regards to Musaylima Kadhab and his associates had come to an end.
There are some accounts remaining about the apostates who raised arms during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra). As I said, a number of expeditions took place. The first expedition has already been mentioned in great detail. Out of the remaining 10 expeditions,
The following is stated with regards to the second and third expedition; these expeditions were led by Hazrat Hudhaifah and Hazrat Arfajah (ra) against the rebellious apostates of Oman. Oman is a city in Yemen, situated close to Bahrain. It is situated between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.
At that time, it also comprised of the eastern regions of the present day United Arab Emirates. Oman was home to the idolatrous tribe of Azd as well as other Zoroastrian tribes. Muscat, Sohar and Dibba were cities located on the coast. During the blessed era of the Holy Prophet (sa),
Oman was part of the Persian government and an individual by the name, Jaifar, was appointed as its governor. Zoroastrianism had spread across this region. For the purpose of propagating the message of Islam, in 8 AH, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent a letter
With Hazrat Abu Zaid Ansari (ra) and Hazrat ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas (ra) to two brothers; Jaifar bin Julanda and ‘Abbad bin Julanda, who were chieftains of that area. The content of the letter sent by the Holy Prophet (sa) was as follows: “In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
“This letter is from Muhammad (sa), servant of Allah and His Messenger, “addressed to Jaifar and Abbad, the sons of Julanda. “Peace be upon those who have followed the guidance. “I invite you to accept Islam. “You should embrace Islam and as a result you will remain safeguarded.
“I am the Messenger (sa) of Allah and have been sent to the entire world, “so that I may warn all those who are living and convey the arguments to the disbelievers. “If you accept Islam, then in accordance to the established practice, “I shall allow you to remain as leaders.
“However, if you refuse to accept Islam, then your authority shall be seized.” According to some narrations, the two brothers accepted Islam after days of debating the matter. According to another narration, the ruler of Oman, Jaifar stated: “I find no reason to reject Islam,
“however I do fear that if I collect the Zakat from here and send it to Madinah, “my people will turn against me.” Upon this, Hazrat ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas (ra) suggested to him that the Zakat collected from the people of that area would be spent on the poor members of that very region.
And so, he accepted Islam. Hazrat ‘Amr (ra) stayed there for two years and continued to convey the message of Islam to the people. Owing to his successful preaching endeavours, most people in that region accepted Islam. When the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away
And when apostasy and rebellion had spread across the whole of Arabia, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked Hazrat ‘Amr bin ‘Aas to come to Madinah from Oman. Following the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Laqit bin Malik Azdi rose up.
His appellation was Dhu Al-Taj (possessor of the crown) and during the era of ignorance, he was given the same status as Julanda, the governor of Oman. Julanda was the title given to the kings of Oman. In any case, he had claimed prophethood and the ignorant people of Oman followed him.
He gained power over Oman and so Jaifar and his brother Abbad had to take refuge in the mountains. Jaifar informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) about all these events and sought help. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent two commanders; one was Hudhaifah bin Mihsan Ghalfani Himiri who was sent to Oman
And the other was Arfajah bin Harsamah Bariki Yazdi who was sent towards Mahra. Both were sent with the instructions to travel together and to start the battle from Oman. Mahra was the name of a Yemeni tribe. (Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) instructed that when the battle begins in Oman,
Hudhaifah will be the leader and when there is a battle in Mahra, he will fulfil the duties of commander-in-chief. An introduction to Hazrat Hudhaifah and Hazrat Arfajah is that according to Tarikh Al-Tabari, Hazrat Hudhaifah’s (full) name Hudhaifah bin Mihsan Ghalfani,
Whereas according to a book on the life of Companions, his name was Hudhaifah Qal’ani. He remained the governor of Oman until the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). According to a book on the lives of the Companions, Hazrat Arfajah’s full name was Arfajah bin Huzaimah. According to Allama Ibn Athir,
His father’s name was Harsamah who was renowned for his war strategies against his enemies. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl to assist both of them. Previously, during the accounts relating to the Battle of Yamama, with reference to Musailmah Kadhab,
It was mentioned that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Ikrimah to combat the wave of apostasy and rebellion and sent Shurahbil bin Hasanah for his support, he instructed Ikrimah that he should not attack prior to the arrival of Shurahbil.
However, he did not wait for him and launched an attack as a result of which he suffered defeat. Due to this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became upset with him and instructed him to go to Oman. According to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) instruction, Ikrimah set out for Oman to help Arfajah and Hudhaifah.
Before the two reached Oman, Ikrimah met them at a place called Rijam and they sent a message to Jaifar and his brother, Abbad. According to some books of history such as Al-Kamil, by ibn Athir, his name is recorded as Ayyaz. Rijam is a vast mountain range in Oman.
In any case, after receiving this message from the leaders of the Muslim army, Jaifar and Abbad came out from the residence in which they were hiding after the apostate (ruler) had claimed prophethood and had formed an army which grew in strength.
In any case they came out from where they were staying and they set up camp in Sohar. They sent a message to Hudhaifah, Arfajah and Ikrimah that they should all come and join them. Sohar is also a village in a mountainous area of Oman.
It is recorded that there would be a market there for the first five nights of Rajab. Hence the Muslim army gathered in Sohar and eliminated the apostates from nearby areas. When Laqit bin Malik learned of the Islamic army’s arrival
He set out with his army in order to confront them and encamped at a place called Dibba. He placed women, children and their provisions at the rear, so as to strengthen them in war. Dibba was a city in that area and was a centre for trading.
The Muslim leaders sent letters to the chieftains accompanying Laqit, beginning with the chief of the Banu Juzaid tribe. Those chieftains also wrote letters replying to the Muslim leaders. The result of this correspondence was that all of those chieftains left Laqit and joined the Muslims. In Dibba, a vicious battle took place;
Initially Laqit had the upper hand and it was nigh that the Muslims suffered defeat, however Allah the Almighty bestowed His favour and benevolence and sent down His assistance in that delicate hour. Various tribes from Bahrain and a large battalion from Banu Abd al-Qais arrived as reinforcements, which greatly strengthened them.
They launched a strong attack against Laqit’s army, as a result of which they lost their footing and ran away. The Muslims chased after them and killed 10,000 of their warriors and imprisoned the women and children. They seized control of the wealth and market
Of which they sent one fifth to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) through Arfajah. Hence, in this way the disorder in Oman was eradicated and the Muslim rule was established upon firm foundations. After the battle, Hudhaifah took up residence in Oman and became engaged in improving the conditions there and establishing peace and security.
As mentioned previously, Arfajah went to Madinah with the spoils and Hazrat Ikrimah went with his army to Mahra in order to eliminate the rebellion there. It is recorded with regards to Hazrat Ikrimah’s expeditions against the apostates and rebels that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) granted one of the flags to Hazrat Ikrimah
And instructed him to confront Musailimah. In order to combat Musailimah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Ikrimah to Yamama and then sent Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanah in support. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent both of them to Yamama, however he had told Ikrimah not to attack until Shurahbil reached there.
However, Ikrimah acted in haste, as has been mentioned before, and advanced with an attack before the arrival of Shurahbil, as a result of which Musailimah pushed them back and defeated them. When Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanah learned about what happened, he remained where he was.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) wrote to Shurahbil saying that he should remain close to Yamama until he received further instructions from him. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) wrote to Ikrimah that he would not even look at him – as has been mentioned before –
And that he would not listen to anything he had to say until he achieved some great feat and did something extraordinary. Only then should he return to him. He then said that he should go to Oman and help Hudhaifah and Arfajah in combatting the people of Oman.
In any case, as it has already been mentioned, Oman was part of the Persian Gulf (region) which also included the eastern areas of the United Arab Emirates of today. The idolatrous tribe Azd resided there along with others who were Zoroastrians. Muscat, Sohar and Dibba were coastal cities there.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also said that each one of them were to command over the cavalry, however when they were in the areas lead by Hudhaifah, he would be the overall commander and that when they had completed their mission, they should proceed to Mahra and then from there they should go to Yemen.
They should remain with Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah while tending to the matters of Yemen and Hadarmaut and that they should punish those who had become apostates between Oman and Yemen. He said that he hoped to receive news of their achievements in battle. This is what was said by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
In any case, before Ikrimah set out, Hudhaifah bin Mihsan Ghalfani went to Oman and Arfajah Bariki went to Mahra to fight the apostates according to the instructions of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Ikrimah set out after with his army to assist Arfajah and Hudhaifah. Ikrimah met them both before they reached Oman.
Prior to this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) clearly instructed them that after completing their task in Oman, they should act according to the opinion of Ikrimah, whether he asked them to accompany him or ordered them to stay in Oman. Nonetheless, as it has already been mentioned,
When these three commanders converged at Rijam – a place in the near vicinity of Oman – they sent their messengers to Jaifer and Abbad. At the same time, when Laqit heard of their army approaching, he gathered his forces and went to Dibba to set up his encampment.
Jaifer and Abbad also set forth from their settlements and set up their encampments in Sohar. They also sent for Hudhaifah, Arfajah and ‘Ikrimah to all come to their location. Therefore, as it has been mentioned, they all came to the two of them and collected in Sohar. Thereafter, they purged their regions of apostates
Until there was peace with all the people in their surrounding areas. Furthermore, the three (aforementioned) commanders also wrote letters to the chieftain associates of Laqit. They took the initiative to reach out to the chief of Banu Juzaid, and in response, the chieftains wrote letters to the Muslims.
As it was mentioned, this resulted in the chieftains parting ways from Laqit. Following this, the army of Laqit fought in an intense battle against the Muslims, the details of which have already been mentioned. After this expedition, ‘Ikrimah and Hudhaifah unanimously decided amongst each other that Hudhaifah would stay back in Oman
To reconcile matters and grant assurance of peace to the people, while Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) would advance with the main Muslim forces against other (rebellious) idolaters to crush them. He (‘Ikrimah) started his advance for the battle from Mahra. In respect to Hazrat ‘Ikrimah advancing against the tribe of Mahra, it is recorded:
“After supressing the apostates in Oman, “‘Ikrimah and his army set forth to another region in Najd, namely toward the tribe of Mahra.” It is further recorded: “He requested help from the people of Oman “and those in the surrounding area to partake in this expedition.
“They continued to advance forward until they reached the area where the Mahra tribe resided. “They were accompanied by people from different tribes “as Hazrat ‘Ikrimah mounted an attack against Mahra and its surrounding settlements. “In defense against them, the people of Mahra split into two groups;
“one group had fortified Jayrut under the leadership of a man named Shakhrit, “while the other group was under the leadership of Musabba’, “a man from Banu Maharib tribe of Najd. “In fact, all of the armies in Mahra were under his (Musabba’s) command, “except the contingent that was under the leadership of Shakhrit.
“Both these chieftains were at odds with one another “and each of them tried to convince the other to join their side. “All the warriors within their armies only desired for their own leader to be successful. “This was the factor through which Allah the Almighty granted help to the Muslims
“and strengthened them against their enemy, rendering them weak. “When ‘Ikrimah observed that Shakhrit was accompanied by a small number of people, “he invited him to return to Islam (he was a Muslim prior to this) and said, ‘Accept Islam once again and cease your battle against the Muslims.’
“It so happened that upon this initial invitation, “Shakhrit accepted Islam and in this way, Allah the Almighty weakened Musabba’. “Following this, ‘Ikrimah sent a messenger to Musabba’ “to invite him back to Islam and to shun disbelief, “however, he was deceived by the large number of people he had in his ranks.
“Owing to Shakhrit’s acceptance of Islam, “the disagreement between him and Musabba’ increased even more. “Nonetheless, both ‘Ikrimah and Shakhrit mounted an attack against Musabba’ in Najd “and a battle ensued that was far more severe than the battle fought in Dibba.
“Allah made the forces of the rebellious apostates accept defeat and their leader was killed. “The Muslims pursued those who fled and killed many of them, “while a great many were taken as prisoners of war. “The Muslims also took 2000 camels of an excellent breed as spoils from this battle.”
Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) divided the spoils of war into five parts and sent the Khums (one fifth of the spoils of war reserved for Allah and His messenger) with Shakhrit for Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). The remaining four parts were distributed amongst the Muslims. In this way, ‘Ikrimah and his army was furthered strengthened
By their acquisition of mounts, wealth, provisions and supplies. Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) stayed in that area and gathered all the people, all of whom accepted Islam. Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (sa) sent news of this victory to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with a messenger named Sa’ib. Then, there is mention of Hazrat ‘Ikrimah’s (ra) advancements in Yemen.
In his letter to Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) – which has already been mentioned – Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed him to go toward Yemen after (conquering) Mahra, to accompany Hazrat Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah (ra) in dealing with matters of Hadramaut and to supress those who rebelled in apostasy between Oman and Yemen.
Therefore, in fulfilment of this instruction from Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) set forth from Mahra toward Yemen until he reached Abyan. Abyan is also a village in Yemen. He was accompanied by a very large army comprising of people from the tribe of Mahra and many other tribes.
Much of Hazrat ‘Ikrimah’s (ra) stay was spent in southern Yemen where he remained occupied supressing uprisings in the tribes of Nakha and Himyar, after which there was no longer a need to go toward northern Yemen. After capturing the runaways of the Nakha tribe,
Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) gathered the people and asked them, “What is your opinion of Islam?” They replied, “In the age of ignorance, we were religious people who were attached to our faith. “We did not fight against other Arab tribes.
“What will become of us when we accept the religion whose superiority is well-known to us “and whose love has already entered our hearts? “(In other words, love for Islam has taken root in our hearts).” When Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) investigated whether what they are saying is from the heart
Or whether they were just trying to save themselves, he found out that they were telling the truth. The general population remained firm on Islam, albeit a few among the elite turned to apostasy and fled. In this manner, Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) absolved the tribes of Nakha and Himyar
Of the allegations of apostasy and stayed there so they can reorganise themselves. Hazrat ‘Ikrimah’s (ra) stay in Abyan had a great impact on the little remaining followers of Aswad ‘Ansi, who were led by Qais bin Maqshuh and ‘Amr bin Ma’di Karib. After fleeing from Sana, Qais continued to make rounds of Sana
While ‘Amr bin Ma’di Karib had joined the party of Aswad ‘Ansi in Lahj. However, when Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) arrived in Abyan, both – Qais and ‘Amr bin Ma’di Karib – joined forces to fight against him. Their alliance was short-lived as they quickly became conflicted and separated.
In this way, Hazrat ‘Ikrimah’s (ra) approach from the east played a key role in bringing an end to apostate groups in Lahj. Adjacent to Yemen was the tribe of Kindah, located in the region of Hadramaut. The governor of this area was Hazrat Ziyad bin Labid (ra).
He was strict in matters of Zakat as a result of which the people rebelled against him. Thus, Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) and Hazrat Muhajir bin Abu Ummayah (ra) both came to his aid. The details of this will be mentioned alongside the details of Hazrat Muhajir bin Abu Ummayah (ra).
Nonetheless, when Hazrat ‘Ikrimah (ra) made preparations for his return to Madinah following his efforts against the apostates, he had along with him the daughter of Nu’man bin Jaun whom he married during one of the battles. Even though Hazrat Ikrimah was aware of the fact
That Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was extremely displeased with Hazrat Khalid (ra) for marrying Umm Tamim and the daughter of Muja’ah – this has been mentioned in detail in the previous sermon – but despite this, Hazrat Ikrimah married her. As a result of this, many members from Hazrat Ikrimah’s army distanced themselves from him.
The matter was then presented before Hazrat Muhajir, however he too was unable to give a verdict and thus wrote to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) and informed him of the entire situation and sought his decision on the matter. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) wrote back and stated,
“Ikrimah has not done anything wrong by marrying her.” This reassured all those people who were displeased over this (marriage). It has also been mentioned that the reason why some of the people were displeased with Hazrat Ikrimah was because Nauman bin Jaun presented himself before the Holy Prophet (sa)
And requested him to accept his daughter’s hand in marriage, however the Holy Prophet (sa) declined the proposal and sent her back with her father. Since the Holy Prophet (sa) had already once refused to marry this woman, therefore a section of Hazrat Ikrimah’s army believed
That based on the noble example of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Ikrimah also should not have married her. However, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) did not accept this argument and said this was a completely wrong view to hold and considered Hazrat Ikrimah’s marriage to be lawful.
Hazrat Ikrimah along with his wife returned to Madinah and this particular section of the army which had become displeased with him and separated themselves from him, re-joined him. The woman (who Hazrat Ikrimah married) was Asma bint Nuaman bin Jaun. Her brief introduction is as follows:
There are various narrations recorded in Bukhari and in other books of Ahadith with regards to the woman who Hazrat Ikrimah married. Her nikah was announced with the Holy Prophet (sa), however before the marriage was solemnised,
She committed an act as a result of which the Holy Prophet (sa) sent her back to her tribe. There are many varying opinions in relation to her name as well the incidents in connection with her. Some have reported that her marriage took place with Hazrat Muhajir bin Umaiyyah bin Abi Umaiyyah.
In any case, whilst mentioning the details of this incident, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) stated, “When Arabia was conquered and Islam began to spread, “there was a lady from the tribe of Kindah, “whose name was Asma or Umaima, who was also called Jaunia or Bint Al-Jaun.
“Her brother, Luqman, came to the Holy Prophet (sa) “as a representative of his tribe. “On that occasion he also expressed his desire for his sister’s hand “to be given in marriage to the Holy Prophet (sa). “He made the request directly to the Holy Prophet (sa) saying,
‘My sister, who was previously married to a relative, is now widowed. ‘She is very beautiful and intelligent. Please accept her proposal of marriage.’ “As the Holy Prophet (sa) desired to unite the tribes of Arabia, “he accepted this request of his and said that the nikah should be announced
“on the basis of twelve and a half ounces of silver (as her dowry). “He said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! We are counted amongst the honourable families. ‘The amount set for this dowry is very little.’ “The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, ‘I have not set a higher dowry
‘for any of my wives, nor any of my daughters.’ “Once he expressed his satisfaction, the nikah was announced. “Furthermore, he requested the Holy Prophet (sa) to send a person in order to bring his wife. “The Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Abu Usaid for this task. He went there.
“Jauniya invited him to her home upon which Hazrat Usaid said “that the wives of the Holy Prophet (sa) have been instructed to observe the veil. “Upon this, she inquired about further guidance, which he imparted to her. “He then brought her to Madinah on a camel and settled her in a house,
“which was surrounded by date palms. “The relatives of this lady sent her wet-nurse along with her.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) writes, “In our countries, affluent people send female maids along with them “(i.e. with the newly married woman), “so that she does not experience any kind of discomfort.
“As this lady was known for her beauty and as is customary “that the women wish to meet a new bride in the area, “the women of Madinah also went to see her. “And according to her own testimony, “another lady had taught her to impose her authority from the very first day.
“She was told that when the Holy Prophet (sa) approaches, “she should say, ‘I seek Allah’s protection from you.’ “In this manner, he will become more fond of you.’ “If this was not a fabrication of this lady (who got married), “(Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) says) it is very possible
“that a hypocrite schemed this mischief through his wife or another relative. “Nevertheless, when the Holy Prophet (sa) received the news of her arrival, “he went to the house which was designated for her. “In the Ahadith it is written (and the translation of it is) “that when the Holy Prophet (sa) approached her,
“he said to her, ‘Present yourself to me (through this marriage).’ “Upon this she replied, ‘Does a queen offer herself to an ordinary man?’ “(God-forbid, she considered herself to be of a higher status). “Abu Usaid says that as the Holy Prophet (sa) thought “that she was nervous due to not being familiar with him,
“he placed his hand on her in order to comfort her. “As soon as he placed his hand on her, “she uttered these utmost abhorrent and inappropriate words that ‘I seek Allah’s protection from you.’ “As a prophet becomes humbled when he hears the name of God the Exalted “and is awestruck by His magnificence,
“the Holy Prophet (sa) immediately said upon hearing her words ‘You have sought refuge and protection of the Highest Being, ‘Who grants protection in great abundance. Therefore, I accept your request.’ “Hence, the Holy Prophet (sa) immediately came out of the house and said
‘O Abu Usaid! Give her two pieces of cloth and send her to her family.’ “Hence, following that, apart from her dowry, “the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed to give her two sheets as a gesture of kindness.” There were two long sheets of white cloth of a really good quality given to her.
“This was done in order to fulfil the commandment of the Holy Qur’an: “(ARABIC) (‘Do not forget to do good to one another’) “This (verse) is in relation to women, “who are divorced without having consummated the marriage. “The Holy Prophet (sa) sent her away and Abu Usaid brought her to her home.
“This matter was very burdensome for the people of her tribe and they scolded her. “However, she continued to reply that it was her ill fortune. “At times, she even said that she was deceived “and told that when the Holy Prophet (sa) approached her, “she should step aside and express a sense of dislike.
“In this manner she would impose her rank on him. “Whether this was the reason or something else, “she expressed a sense of dislike “and the Holy Prophet (sa) separated himself from her and sent her away.” I have mentioned this once before as well and in relation to a companion, Hazrat Usaid.
In any case, Hazrat Ikrimah returned to Madinah from Kindah and Hadramaut along the route of Makkah and Yemen. When he arrived in Madinah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed him to go and help Khalid bin Saeed. Hazrat Ikrimah had sent his army on leave which had previously fought against the apostates.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) prepared another army for him in its place. The reason why they were given leave was because he felt that they had become tired from after having taken part in such a major expedition. In any case, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) prepared another army
And instructed them to assemble under the flag of Ikrimah and depart from Syria. The details of Hazrat Ikrimah’s extraordinary achievements in Syria and him fighting with such great bravery and embracing martyrdom will, God-Willing, be mentioned in relation to the expeditions that took place in Syria.
The fifth expedition was led by Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasana against the rebellious apostates. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Ikrimah towards Musailimah in Yamama and also sent Hazrat Shurahbil towards Yamama as well. A brief introduction of Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasana is that
His father’s name was Abdullah bin Mata’ and his mother’s name was Hasanah. Some people refer to him as “Kindi” and also as “Tamimi”. Shurahbil’s father passed away during his childhood and he was known by his mother’s name, hence his name was Shurahbil bin Hasanah. Hazrat Shurahbil was among the early converts to Islam.
He, along with his brothers, migrated towards Abyssinia and upon returning from Abyssinia, he stayed in the houses belonging to the Banu Zuraiq. During the era of Khilafat-e-Rashidah, he was among the well-known commanders of the army. He passed away in 18 AH at the age of 67 during the outbreak of the Amwas plague.
Nonetheless, as has been mentioned previously, despite Hazrat Abu Bakr’s instructions not to attack until the arrival of Hazrat Shurahbil, Ikrimah (ra) acted in haste and launched an attack against Musailimah, so that the recognition of this victory would be attributed to him. However, Musailimiah’s forces repelled his attack.
When Hazrat Ikrimah (ra) informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) of this setback, then as mentioned previously, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent him a letter admonishing him that he should not return to Madinah with this blemish of defeat, as it would bring down the morale of the people and dampen the spirits of everyone.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) ordered him to go towards Oman. Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanah was still on route when he learnt of Hazrat Ikrimah’s defeat. He stopped his advance and sent a message to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asking him for new instructions. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed him to remain where he was.
He wrote to him saying: “Remain stationed close to Yamama until you receive my second command. “At present, do not confront the one you have been sent to attack (i.e. Musailimah).” Then, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) assigned Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (ra) to head towards Yamama,
He also ordered Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanah to wait for Hazrat Khalid bin Walid to join him. Then when they successfully finish their campaign in Yamama, they ought to head towards the Quda’ah tribe and along with Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas they should deal with the rebels among the Quda’ah tribe
Who not only turned away from Islam, but actively opposed it. They not only turned away from Islam, but also opposed it. Quda’ah was a famous Arab tribe which lived at a distance of 10 Manzil’s from Madinah, to the west of Madain Salih, further on from Wadi Al-Qura.
Nonetheless, in accordance with Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) instructions, Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) remained in his position along with his army. However, Musailimah attacked him with his army. Whilst mentioning this, an author writes: “Hazrat Khalid was still making his way towards Yamama “when Musailimah’s army launched an attack on Hazrat Shurahbil’s (ra) army
“and pushed them back.” Some historians have written that Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) made the same mistake as his predecessor Hazrat Ikrimah (ra) did, i.e., that he attacked Musailimah’s army with the hope of claiming victory to his name, but he too was defeated and had to retreat. However, this does not seem to be correct.
In fact, fearing the harmful effects of Hazrat Khalid joining forces with Hazrat Shurahbil (ra), the army of Musailimah marched ahead and defeated Hazrat Shurahbil’s army. In turn, they succeeded in pushing them back. Either of the two scenarios are plausible; but the fact remains that Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) retreated with his army.
When he reached Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (ra) and he was informed about all the events, Hazrat Khalid rebuked Hazrat Shurahbil (ra). Hazrat Khalid (ra) was of the opinion that if the army does not have the strength to face an enemy, then they should refrain from engaging in battle, until the required reinforcements arrive,
As opposed to engaging with the enemy with an understrength army and having to face defeat. Nonetheless, Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) then joined forces with Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (ra). Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (ra) appointed Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) as the commander of the vanguard, i.e., the front part of the army,
And appointed Hazrat Zaid bin Khattab (ra) and Abu Hudaifah bin Utbah bin Rabi’ah as commanders of the right and left flank respectively. In accordance with the instructions of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), after finishing from the campaign in Yamama, Hazrat Shurahbil went to deal with the rebels of the Banu Quda’ah tribe
And joined Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas (ra). It is written that Hazrat Shurahbil and Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas attacked the rebels of Banu Quda’ah. Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas attacked the Sa’d and Balq tribes and Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) attacked the Kalb tribe and those tribes under their authority.
The sixth expedition was the expedition in which Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas was sent to confront the rebels. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) handed a banner for Amr bin Al-‘Aas and ordered him to deal with three tribes: Quda’ah, Wadi’ah and Harith.
Quda’ah was a famous Arab tribe which lived at a distance of 10 Manzil’s from Madinah, to the west of Madain Salih, further on from Wadi Al-Qura. A brief introduction to Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas is as follows; his name was Amr and his appellation was Abdullah bin Abdullah
Or according to some it was Abu Muhammad. His father’s name was Aas bin Wail and his mother’s name was Nabigha bint Harmalah. According to one narration, his mother’s real name was Salma, and Nabigha was her title. Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas accepted Islam in 8 AH, six months prior to the conquest of Makkah.
The Holy Prophet (sa) appointed him as the governor of Oman and he remained in this post until the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). After this, he joined the conquest of the Levant. During the era of Hazrat Umar (ra), he served as the governor of Palestine.
Among his notable achievements is the conquest of Egypt. After conquering Egypt, Hazrat Umar (ra) appointed him as the governor of Egypt. During the Khilafat of Hazrat Uthman (ra), he was removed from governorship, after which he moved to Palestine and lived in seclusion. Amir Mu’awiyah reappointed him as the governor of Egypt
And he remained in this position until his demise. It is said that he passed away in 43 AH, whereas according to some he passed away in 47 AH, some state his demise as 48 AH and others say 51 AH.
The narration in which it states that he passed away in 43 AH is commonly accepted to be correct. Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas was an eloquent and articulate orator. He was intelligent, expressive, distinguished in politics and a commander-in-chief of the army. The Holy Prophet (sa) trusted him in military expeditions.
The Holy Prophet (sa) declared that the family of Amr bin Al-‘Aas, his son Abdullah and Umm Abdullah is among the best households. An author writes: “Out of the 11 banners that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) ordered to be prepared, “one of them was for Amr bin Al-‘Aas.
“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) assigned him the task to fight against the rebels of the Quda’ah tribe, “because even during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (sa), “he had already fought against the Quda’ah tribe in the Battle of Dhat al-Salasil;
“he was aware of the conditions of the tribe as well as all the routes around them. “In Dhu Al-Hijjah, 8 AH, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas (ra) “for the purpose of Tabligh along with a letter to Jaifar and Abbad bin Jalunde, “who were two chiefs in Oman.
“This deputation proved to be very successful “and the people of Oman accepted Islam through Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas (ra). “Expressing his delight owing to this success, “the Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas (ra) “the task of collecting Zakat from Oman.
“He was in Oman when he received a letter from Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) “informing him of the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). “After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), majority of the Arab tribes became apostates. “In order to supress this (rebellion),
“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas (ra) from Oman, “and so according to these instructions, Hazrat Amr returned to Madinah from Oman. “In order to crush the wave of apostasy and rebellion, “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) appointed 11 commanders.
“It was at this point that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) ordered Hazrat Shurahbil bin Hasanah (ra) “that when he successfully completes the expedition in Yamama, “he ought to head towards the Quda’ah tribe and alongside Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas, “he ought to defeat those rebels who had left Islam and were actively planning against it.
“Hence, both Hazrat Shurahbil (ra) and Hazrat Amr launched an attack “on the rebels of the Banu Quda’ah and began their campaign against them.” Details regarding this are mentioned by one author as follows: “The Banu Quda’ah did not enter Islam joyfully, rather, just like some other tribes,
“they accepted Islam either out of fear or in the hope of attaining wealth and prestige, “whereas their hearts were devoid of the love of Islam. “Therefore, after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), “the minute they sensed a weakness among the Muslims, they refused to pay the Zakat.
“As soon as he received instructions from the Khalifa of the time, “Amr bin Al-‘Aas immediately left with his army for Juzam along the route he took previously. “When he arrived there, he saw that the Banu Quda’ah were fully prepared for war.
“A fierce battle ensued and just as they suffered defeat in the past, they faced defeat again. “Hazrat Amr bin Al-‘Aas succeeded in bringing them back into the fold of Islam, “and he brought the Zakat that he had taken from them to Madinah.” God Willing, the remaining expeditions will be mentioned in the future.
All praise is due to Allah We laud Him, we beseech help from Him and ask His protection; we confide in Him, we trust Him alone and we seek protection against the evils and mischief of our souls and from the bad results of our deeds.
Whomsoever He guides on the right path, none can misguide him; and whosoever He declares misled, none can guide him onto the right path. And we bear witness that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah. We bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His servant and Messenger.
O servants of Allah! May Allah be merciful to you. Verily, Allah commands you to act with justice, to confer benefits upon each other and to do good to others as one does to one’s kindred and forbids evil which pertain to your own selves
And evils which affect others and prohibits revolts against a lawful authority. He warns you against being unmindful. You remember Allah; He too will remember you; call Him and He will make a response to your call. And verily divine remembrance is the highest virtue.