Friday Sermon – Khalifatul Masih V – Mirza Masroor Ahmad – Year 2021
Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah
I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah Come to Prayer Come to Prayer Come to success Come to success Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest There is none worthy of worship except Allah Peace and blessings of Allah be upon you.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. He is One and has no partner. and I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His Servant and Messenger. After this I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the accursed. In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, The Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we implore for help. Guide us in the right path – The path of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy blessings,
Those who have not incurred displeasure, and those who have not gone astray. Accounts pertaining to the conquests that took place in the time of Hazrat Umar (ra) were currently being narrated. Alama Shibli Nomani was a biographer who has written on the life and character of Hazrat Umar (ra).
While mentioning the circumstances and reasons for the conquests Hazrat Umar (ra) undertook, he writes: “Any historian would wonder “how a handful of desert dwellers managed to overthrow the Persian and Byzantine empires. “Was this an exceptional event in the history of the world? “And what were the circumstances surrounding it?
“Can these events be likened to the conquests of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan? “How much influence did the guidance of Khilafat have in what was accomplished? “I wish to answer these questions at this time, but prior to this, “it is necessary to summarise the magnitude and breadth
“of the Farooqi conquests (conquests of Hazrat Umar Farooq (ra)). “The total area of the land conquered by Hazrat Umar (ra) “amounted to 2,251,030 square miles; “extending 1036 miles to the north of Makkah, 1087 miles to the east and 483 miles to the south.
“These are the results of the conquests of Hazrat Umar (ra) alone, “which span a period of just over 10 years. “This brief historical background just mentioned is necessary to understand these conquests. “Nonetheless, I will mention the thoughts of European historians about these conquests. “For the answer to the first question,
“European historians say that both the Persian and Byzantine empires had already begun to decline “and were past the pinnacle of what they had already achieved. “As the law of nature dictates, they were bound to fall.” Molana Shibli Nomani further states:
“After the rule of Khosrow II, the system of governance in Persia fell apart “because there was no one competent to lead. “High ranking officials and members in the government began to conspire, “due to which there was a continuous change in leadership.
“In a span of three to four years, the sovereign changed between six to seven different rulers. “Another reason (for the success of Hazrat Umar (ra)), “as presented by European historians, “is that before the rule of King Nausherwan, “the Mazdakite sect, which was inclined toward atheism and disbelief, “was exerting great influence.
“Their ideology was that all hearts should be purged of selfishness “and other animosities and all possessions, “in which they included women, should be considered as mutual property – “all for the sake of purifying religion. “(In other words, there was no respect and regard given to women.) “This was the viewpoint of this faction.
“And for some, this was a collective scheme aimed at reforming and purifying the Zoroastrian faith. “King Nausherwan did manage to suppress this rising faction by the use of the sword “but was unable to eliminate it. “When the Muslims came to conquer Persia, “this sect considered the Muslims as their supporters
“because the Muslims did not interfere with any religion.” This is the viewpoint of European historians. He further writes: “Among the Christians (Byzantines), “there was the Nestorian sect which had trouble finding refuge under any other ruling government. “They too took refuge under Muslim rule from the cruelty of their opposition.
“As a result, the Muslims effortlessly gained the cooperation and understanding of two large sects. “Byzantine rule was already withering “and there were many internal disputes among the Christians in those days. “Because their system of governance was heavily influenced by religion,
“those internal disputes did not only affect religious ideology, but also weakened the empire.” Refuting these views held by the European historians, Alama Shibli Nomani writes: “Although the answers offered by European historians are not completely devoid of truth,
“it is an attempt to paper over the cracks – which is a distinct trait of the European writers. “Undoubtedly, the Persian and Byzantine empires had fallen from their peak of their power, “but that simply meant that they would not be able to withstand the opposition “of a powerful and forceful nation.
“It did not at all mean that they would crumble against the unorganized and ill-equipped Arabs. “The Byzantines and Persians were experts in the art of war. “Many books written on the art of war in Greece, which are still present today, “were under practice for a long time among the Byzantines.
“Their provisions were abundant, their equipment was superfluous, “their weapons for war had great variety, “the sheer size of their army would not lessen in number – “and most of all – they did not have to cross any borders to fight,
“but had to stay in their homeland, in their own forts and trenches and defend their nation. “Just prior to the Muslim occupation and during the rule of Khosrow Parvez (Khosrow II), “Iran was at the zenith of its glory. “At that time, Caesar attacked and conquered swathes land with every attack,
“ultimately penetrating all the way to Isfahan (Ispahan). “The regions of Syria conquered by the Persians were taken back “and governance was given new order and organization. “It is commonly acknowledged that the Persian empire held great power “until the reign of Khosrow Parvez. “There are only three to four years
“that separate the death of Khosrow Parvez and the Muslim invasion. “How is it possible for such an old and powerful nation to become so weak “in such a short amount of time. “Naturally, there would be some disruption in organisation “due to the frequent change in leadership,
“however, because there was no decrease in the treasury, military and revenue sectors, “when Yazdegerd came into power, he was able to restore the empire to its former glory “along with the help of those officials who desired reform. “The Mazdakite sect was present in Iran at that time,
“but there is no historical record of any aid received from them at all. “(i.e. the Muslims did not receive any help from them.) “Likewise, there was no help received from the Nestorian sect either. “The Nestorian sect of Christianity believed “that Jesus (as) embodied both human and divine nature separately.
“European historians themselves have not indicated the impact “that religious differences in Christianity had on any occurrences (related to this). “Now, examine the condition of the Arabs in contrast to this. “The Muslim forces that were fighting in Egypt, Iran, “and in the wars against the Byzantines never totalled 100,000.
“They were so unfamiliar with the art of war “that Yarmouk was the first battlefield “where the Arabs lined their forces using the Tabi’a formation. “Tabi’a was a battle formation in which the commander-in-chief “or king leading the army would be in the center of all of his forces.
“This is known as the Tabi’a formation. “The essential equipment necessary for each Persian soldier to wear in combat “included a helmet, chainmail, chilta (iron or steel garments), “Joshan or plated armour (a type of armour), “baktar (set of four iron or steel plates worn on the chest, back and thighs),
“steel gauntlets, a metal visor “(a face covering or visor made out of metal rings, attached to the helmet) and footwear. “In comparison, the Arabs only dressed in armour, most of which was made out of leather. “The opposition had all their protective equipment made from metal,
“while whatever little the Arabs did possess was made of leather. “Even their saddle stirrups were made of wood as opposed to metal. “From among the weapons used in warfare, the Arabs were completely unaware of a “Gurz” or “Kamand”.
“(Gurz is the name of a weapon which is round from the top and has a handle at the bottom. “(It is used to strike the heads of the enemy. “(Kamand is a Lasso or a net or a noose.)
“The Arabs used arrows, but they were so small and inferior that during the Battel of Qadisiyyah, “when the Iranians saw the arrows of the Arabs for the first time, “they thought they were a large needle or a spindle.” Explaining the actual reasons, the Muslim scholar writes:
“In my view, the real answer to this question is that in those days, “owing to the blessings of the Holy Prophet (sa) “the Muslims had developed a sense of passion, resolve, determination, spirit and courage, “which Hazrat Umar (ra) further strengthened and sharpened.
“It reached such a level that even in the peak of their power, “the Byzantine and Persian empires could not contend with them. “However, there are additional factors which did not aid in the conquests, “but assisted in establishing the government. “The primary factor is the truthfulness and honesty of the Muslims.
“Whichever place was conquered by the Muslims, “the people were so impressed by the honesty and truthfulness of the Muslims “that despite difference of religion, they did not want the Muslim rule to end. “Prior to the Battle of Yarmouk, when the Muslims retreated from the provinces of Syria,
“the Christian population cried out: ‘May God bring you back to these lands’. “The Jews grabbed hold of the Torah and stated: “‘Whilst we are alive, the Caesar can never rule here.’ “The Byzantine rule in the Levant and Egypt was oppressive. “For this reason, when the Byzantine faced the Muslims,
“they did so on the basis of the strength of their army and state, their subjects were not with them. “When the Muslims crushed the power of the state, “the road ahead was clear and there was nothing stopping them. “(i.e. there was no opposition from the Byzantine subjects).
“The condition of Persia was somewhat different however. “Beneath the King, there were powerful governors who ruled over large regions and provinces. “They did not fight for their empire, rather they would fight for their own rule. “This was the reason that despite defeating the throne of the empire,
“the Muslims faced obstacles at each step in Persia. “But the general population there also became greatly influenced by the Muslims “and after conquering the lands, they would assist greatly in establishing the government. “Another great factor was that the Muslims first invaded Syria and Iraq, “and both regions contained a large population of Arabs.
“In Syria, the governor of Damascus were the Ghassanids, “who was loosely under the rule of the Caesar. “In actuality, the ruling family in Iraq were the Lakhmi tribe, “but they would pay land tax to the Chosroes. “Although these Arabs had become Christians and initially opposed the Muslims,
“however, the bond of being the same nation is something that cannot be ignored. “The prominent chiefs of Iraq quickly became Muslim and after accepting Islam, “they became the support and aid of the Muslims. “In Syria, the Arabs eventually accepted Islam and freed themselves of Byzantine occupation.
“To make mention of Alexander (the Great) and Genghis (Khan), etc., “would be highly inappropriate. “Undoubtedly both of them accomplished great victories, but how? “Through (imposed) famine, brutality and mass killings. “Everyone knows about Genghis Khan. “If we compare (the Muslim conquest) with the conquests of Alexander,
“when Alexander conquered Sur, a city of Syria, because the people resisted for a long time, “he granted a blanket permission to kill everyone. “The heads of a 1000 residents were hanged on the outer wall of the city. “Along with this, he sold 30,000 men and women that lived there into slavery.
“Not a single person from the old residents or those who wished to live in freedom were spared. “Similarly, when he conquered Istakhr in Persia (Istakhr was an ancient city of Persia) “he killed all the men. “There were similar other merciless acts committed by him. (i.e. by Alexander the Great)
“How then can one ever compare these conquests to that of the Muslims? “It is well known that oppression and injustice can bring down an empire. “This is true because oppression and brutality cannot last forever. “In the same way, the empires of Alexander and Genghis did not last long.
“However, such merciless killings have proven effective to gain immediate results “as a result of which, entire countries have been subdued. “Since a large part of the population is killed, “therefore there is no danger of revolt or rebellion. “It is for this reason Genghis, Nebuchadnezzar, Tamerlane,
“Nadir Shah and other great conquerors were all brutal and cruel. “However, in the conquests of Hazrat Umar (ra), “never was the law contravened nor any injustice committed. “Let alone a blanket permission to kill the men, even a tree was not permitted to be cut. “Children or the elderly were never harmed.
“Apart from in the battlefield, nobody was to be killed, “(i.e. a person could only be killed on the battlefield and not otherwise). “A breach of trust or deception was not permitted against the enemy. “The commanders were given strict instructions that when they engage in battle,
“they were not to use deception, not to mutilate the bodies of the dead, “children were not to be harmed and they were to fight openly. “Furthermore, the people who accepted Muslim rule but then revolted, “they were reminded of their treaty and forgiven.
“To the extent that the people of Arbasus recanted from their treaties three times “(Arbasus was a town near the frontiers of Syria which bordered Asia Minor). “So the most he did was to exile them, but they were paid in exchange for the wealth they lost.” Molana Shibli Nomani further writes:
“If the Jews of Khaibar were exiled owing to their instigations and rebellion, “they were compensated for the land they lost “and it was written to all the provinces that wherever the Jews pass by, “they ought to be assisted.
“Wherever they settle in a town, Jizya should not be taken from them for one year.” He then writes: “Those people who say that in history, “there were many other conquerors who achieved similar great feats as Hazrat Umar (ra) “should demonstrate which ruler conquered even an inch of enemy land
“with the same level of precautions and benevolence. “Furthermore, Alexander, Genghis, etc., were physically present in every battle “and would lead the army as commander-in-chief at every stage. “This meant that aside from having an experienced commander-in-chief at hand, “it would give courage to the army
“and they would have a natural zeal to sacrifice themselves for their master. “But for the entire span of his caliphate, “not once did Hazrat Umar (ra) set foot in the battlefield. “His armies were engaged on several fronts, “but the reins of the army were in the grips of Hazrat Umar.
“Another notable and substantial difference was that the conquests of Alexander and others “were like that of a passing cloud; it came all of a sudden and then departed. “They never established an organised government. “However, the distinction of the lands conquered by Hazrat Umar (ra) is that
“even after the passing of 1300 years, they are still under Islamic rule today. “And from the time of Hazrat Umar (ra), “all structure and organisation of the country was established.” Then mentioning Hazrat Umar’s role in these conquests, Shibli Nomani writes: “The answer to the last question is that according to popular belief,
“the Caliph (Hazrat Umar) did not play much of a role in the conquests, “in fact, it was the passion and resolve of the people at the time.” He further writes: “This is an opinion which in my view is completely incorrect “(i.e. the claim that the Caliph had nothing to do with the conquests)
“The same Muslims were present in the time of Hazrat Usman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), “but what was the result? “Undoubtedly passion and power are captivating qualities, “but these qualities can only be useful “when the person commanding them is equally powerful and mighty.
“There is no need for speculation or conjecture; the facts are enough to decide matter. “After analysing the details of the conquests (in Hazart Umar’s time), “it becomes evidently clear that the Muslim army were like a marionette, “that would move and strike according to instructions of Hazrat Umar.
“And the order and arrangement of the army was due to the special administration “and planning of Hazrat Umar (ra). “Hazrat Umar (ra) himself supervised all matters such as, arranging the army, “training exercises of the army, formation of barracks, training of horses, protection of forts,
“ordering to attack according to the warm or cold weather, organising a system of surveillance, “choosing the commanders for the army, using weapons that could break forts. “Establishing them with such power and authority was an attribute of Hazrat Umar (ra). “In the conquest of Iraq, Hazrat Umar himself discharged duties
“as if he were the commander-in-chief. “When the army would depart from Madinah, he would highlight each step of the way, “in fact he would outline the entire route, “which way they were to take and what to do at which place; “he would send written instructions in accordance with this.
“When the army reached Qadisiyyah, “he asked for a map of the area and arranged the army ranks according to it. “Every commander would act according to the special instructions issued by Hazrat Umar (ra). “If one studies the details of the Muslim campaigns in Iraq from Tarikh Al-Tabari,
“it will become evidently clear that an expert commander-in-chief was sat far away “directing the army through battle and everything that transpired did so due to his instructions. “Among the wars – that were fought over a ten-year span – “the most dangerous occurrence was either in the Battle of Nahavand,
“when the Iranians sent chiefs throughout the provinces of Persia in order to incite them “(for war) and gathered a mighty army of over a hundred thousand to confront the Muslims. “The second instance was when the Byzantine Emperor attacked Homs again “with the help of the people of Jazira.
“In both these battles, it was only the excellent strategy of Hazrat Umar (ra) “that crushed a rising storm on the one hand and demolished a mighty mountain on the other. “After reading the details of these incidents, the claim becomes clear; “that throughout all of history that we know of,
“there has not been a conqueror equal to Hazrat Umar Farooq, the Great, “who was a personification of both a victor and justice. “(i.e. that they attained conquests and upheld justice as well)” With regards to the Holy Prophet (sa) giving tidings to Hazrat Umar (ra) about his martyrdom,
Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) narrates that on one occasion, the Holy Prophet (sa) saw Hazrat Umar (ra) wearing white clothes, he asked him: “Are these clothes new or have they been washed?” Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) states: “I do not remember what Hazrat Umar’s reply was,
“but the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed for him in the following way: “‘Wear new clothes and live an exemplary life; may you attain the death of a martyr.’” Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) states: “I believe the Holy Prophet (sa) also said: “‘May you attain delight in this world and in the hereafter.’”
Hazrat Anas bin Malik (ra) relates that the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Usman (ra) climbed onto mount Uhud and it began to tremble. Upon this the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “O Uhud! Stand still for there is a Prophet, “Siddiq (truthful) and two Shaheed (martyr) standing upon it.”
Hazrat Ubay bin Ka’b (ra) narrates the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Gabriel has informed me that the entire Muslim world shall mourn the death of Hazrat Umar (ra).” There is a narration from the noble wife of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Hafsa (ra), with regards to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) desire to attain martyrdom.
She states that she heard her father say: “O Allah! Grant me the station of martyrdom in Your path “and cause me to die in the city of the Holy Prophet (sa).” Upon this she asked, “How is this possible?” and Hazrat Umar (ra) stated: “Verily, Allah the Almighty bestows His decree as He wills.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has mentioned the prayer offered by Hazrat Umar (ra) to attain the station of martyrdom. He states, “How strong was Hazrat Umar’s (ra) bond with Allah the Almighty!
“The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘if there were a prophet after me, it would have been Umar.’ “‘After me’ here means if there were to be a prophet immediately after him. “Thus, if in that era owing to the needs of the time, “Allah the Almighty wanted to elevate someone
“from the rank of Shaheed to the lofty station of prophethood, “then the Holy Prophet (sa) deemed Hazrat Umar (ra) to be worthy of this. “Upon witnessing his immense sacrifices, “even the staunchest opponents of Europe acknowledge the fact “that seldom does one find a person who has rendered such sacrifices
“and who possesses such a selfless spirit. “And regarding his services (for Islam) they go to such extreme lengths in their estimation “that they attribute the success of Islam entirely to him. “This is the same Umar (ra) who would supplicate, “‘O Allah! Cause me to die in Madinah as a martyr.’”
Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further states, “This supplication was born out of his intense love, “otherwise it was a very dangerous prayer to seek. “In other words, this prayer meant that there be such a ferocious assailant, “who defeats the entire Muslim army and ultimately reaches Madinah “and then martyrs Hazrat Umar (ra) there.
“Allah the Almighty, Who is well aware of everyone’s true intentions, “fulfilled this desire of Hazrat Umar (ra) and also safeguarded Madinah from the afflictions “which were discreet in this prayer and it was ultimately carried out by a Kafir (non-Muslim), “who martyred him in Madinah.
“In any case, it is evident from Hazrat Umar’s (ra) prayer that according to him, “to sacrifice one’s life in the way of God Almighty “was a hallmark of those who enjoy his nearness.” Whilst advising the Ahmadi members, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) continues, “However, today it is considered that
“to have one’s life saved by Allah the Almighty is a sign of His closeness.” On another occasion, whilst mentioning the incident of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) martyrdom and his prayer, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states, “With regards to Hazrat Umar (ra) it is written
“that he would always pray that his demise takes place in Madinah and in the form of martyrdom. “How terrifying is the concept of death. “At the time of death, even one’s closest relations abandon them.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) then mentioned an incident in relation to how people fear death,
“It is said that once a lady’s daughter fell ill and she would pray, “‘O Allah, save my daughter and instead take my life.’ “She was expressing great affection for her daughter. “Incidentally, one night it so happened that the rope of the lady’s cow loosened
“and it put its head in a utensil causing its head to get stuck inside it. “The cow became distressed and started running uncontrollably with its head stuck in the utensil. “Upon witnessing the cow in this state whereby it had something else in place of its face, “the lady became frightened.
“She thought that perhaps her prayer was granted acceptance “and the angel Azrael (Angel of death) had come to take her soul “and she immediately exclaimed, “‘O Azrael! I am not the one who is ill, she is ill and is lying over there.’” In other words, she pointed towards her daughter.
Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further writes, “One’s life is very precious and one would adopt all possible measures to save it.” On the one hand, the lady was praying (for her daughter) but the moment she felt there was a real sense of danger,
She immediately indicated towards her daughter and asked for her life to be taken. Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further states, “A person employs all possible measures to safeguard their life “and exhausts themselves in trying all kinds of cures. “However, the example of the noble companions was such
“that they greatly desired to sacrifice their very lives in the way of God Almighty. “Hazrat Umar (ra) would pray that he attain the station of martyrdom in Madinah.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) continues, “I often ponder that how dangerous was this prayer because what it meant,
“in other words, was that the enemy takes control of Madinah “and martyrs Hazrat Umar (ra) in the streets of Madinah. “However, Allah the Almighty accepted his prayer in such a manner “that he was martyred by a person in Madinah who claimed to be a Muslim.”
It is generally stated that the person who martyred Hazrat Umar (ra) was a non-Muslim, but there are also some narrations which state that he perhaps claimed to be a Muslim. However, majority are of the opinion that he was a non-Muslim. In one reference, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) stated that he was a non-Muslim,
But in another reference he mentioned that this person claimed to be a Muslim. Hence, he was not completely certain in regards to whether he was a Muslim or not. Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further writes, “According to some he was not a Muslim.
“In any case, he was a slave through whom Allah the Almighty granted Hazrat Umar (ra) martyrdom. “When a person desires for something himself “then it cannot be considered as an affliction for them.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) mentioned this in one of his sermons.
Then, what was the condition of the companions upon the martyrdom of Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Abu Burdah relates from his father that Hazrat Auf bin Malik saw a dream whereby people had been gathered in an open plain and there was one individual among them who was elevated from the rest
By a span of three hand widths. He asked who is this person, he was informed that he is Umar bin al-Khattab. Upon this he asked as to he why this person had been elevated from the rest and he was informed that the reason for this was because he possessed three qualities:
He does not fear the reproach of anyone in matters relating to Allah the Almighty; He would attain martyrdom in the way of Allah the Almighty and he would be made a Khalifah. Upon hearing this, Hazrat Auf (ra) went to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to relate his dream,
Who was the Khalifah at the time and informed him of his dream. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called Hazrat Umar (ra) and gave him glad-tidings and then told Hazrat Auf to relate his dream. The narrator states that when he mentioned that he would become the Khalifah,
Hazrat Umar (ra) told him off because Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was still alive. Later, when Hazrat Umar (ra) became the Khalifah, he travelled to Syria and whilst delivering a sermon, he looked towards Hazrat Auf and called him to come at the pulpit. Hazrat Umar (ra) then asked him to relate his dream.
Hazrat Auf mentioned his dream and upon this Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “As far as those people are concerned who do not fear the reproach of any fault-finder, “I am hopeful that Allah the Almighty will enable me to become one of those people.
“With regards to me becoming the Khalifah, I have already been appointed as the Khalifah “and I now pray that may Allah the Almighty grant me help “to fulfil the responsibility which I have been entrusted with. “And with regards to me being martyred,
“how can I be martyred when I live in the Arab land “and do not fight against the neighbouring people.” He then stated, “But if Allah wills then he will bring about the means of my martyrdom.” Though it was not possible in light of the apparent circumstances,
However if Allah willed then He would enable it to happen in some way. It is related from Hazrat Anas bin Malik (ra) that Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari related that he saw a dream in which he set-off to travel upon various routes, but they all disappeared apart from one.
Hence, he set-off on that particular route and eventually reached a mountain and saw that the Holy Prophet (sa) was stood on the mountain and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was standing beside him. The Holy Prophet (sa) was indicating to him come and join them. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari exclaimed in his heart,
“Verily, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return. “By God, the Leader of the Faithful has passed away.” Hazrat Anas relates that he enquired from Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari whether he would inform Hazrat Umar (ra) of this dream
And he replied that he did not want to disclose the news of his demise to him. Saeed bin Abu Hilal narrates that Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (ra) addressed the people on a Friday. He praised Allah the Almighty which He is indeed worthy of and then stated,
“O ye people! I have seen a dream whereby I feel that the time of my demise is near. “I saw a red cockerel which bit me twice. “I related this dream to Asma bint Umais and she interpreted this to mean “that someone from among the non-Arabs will kill me.”
There are varying opinions as to martyrdom of Hazrat Umar (ra); which day he was martyred and when he was buried. According Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Hazrat Umar was attacked on a Wednesday and he passed away on Thursday. Hazrat Umar (ra) was attacked and injured on 26 Dhul Hijjah in 23 AH
And he was buried in the morning on the first of Muharram 24 AH. Usman Akhnas states that Hazrat Umar (ra) passed away on Wednesday 26 Dhul Hijjah. According to Abu Ma’shar, Hazrat Umar (ra) was martyred on 27 Dhul Hijjah. In addition to Tarikh Al-Tabari and Tarikh ibn Al-Athir, majority of the historian’s state
That Hazrat Umar (ra) was injured on 26 Dhul Hijjah in 23 AH and he passed away on the first of Muharram and was buried the same day. The detailed account of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) martyrdom has been narrated in Sahih Bukhari as follows:
Amr bin Maimoon relates that he saw Hazrat Umar (ra) in Madinah a few days prior to him being attacked. Hazrat Umar (ra) went to Huzaifah bin Yamman and Usman bin Hunaif and enquired what they had done with regards to the taxation of the land in Iraq
As this was a responsibility entrusted to them from the Khalifah. He also asked whether they felt that they had imposed a tax on the land which was beyond the means of the people. They both stated that they had fixed a tax which was in accordance to their means.
In other words, there was enough potential in the land to produce a certain amount of crop and that they did not set the tax too high. Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “See as to whether or not you have set a tax upon it which it cannot bear.”
The narrator says that both of them replied, “No.” Hazrat Umar (ra) then said, “If Allah keeps me in good health, “I would indeed go to the widows of Iraq and leave them in a state “whereby they would be in no need of anyone after me.”
The narrator says that four nights had not passed after this conversation when Hazrat Umar (ra) was wounded. The narrator also says that on the day that he was wounded, I was stood there and only Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) was between him and I.
He had a habit when passing through two rows to tell the people to straighten the rows, and when there was no longer any gap, he would step forward and recite Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest). At times he would recite Surah Yusuf or Surah al-Nahl
Or a similar chapter in the first Rak’ah (unit of prayer) of the Fajr prayer, so that people could gather. He had only just recited “Allahu Akbar” when I heard him say, “I have been killed” or, “I have been bitten by a dog”.
When the non-Arab assailant had attacked him, he took his double edged knife and fled. He continued to wound whoever he passed by to his left and right, i.e. out of fear of being caught, he would wound all those who tried to seize him with his knife,
To the extent that he injured 13 people, among whom seven died. When one of the Muslims witnessed this, he used his coatin Sahih Bukhari the word ‘Burnus’ has been used which refers to a cloth which has a hood that covers the head,
I.e. a long cloak with a sort of hat attached. It also refers to a tall hat. Nonetheless, he threw his coat on him. When he was certain that he had been caught, he cut his own neck. Hazrat Umar (ra) took the hand of Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) and ushered him forward.
The narrator says: “Those close by Hazrat Umar (ra) also witnessed what I witnessed “but those at the sides of the mosque only knew “that they no longer heard the voice of Hazrat Umar (ra), “so they were reciting SubhanAllah, SubhanAllah! (Holy is Allah).
“Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) therefore led the people in a short prayer. “When Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) completed the prayer, “Hazrat Umar (ra) asked Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) to go see who had attacked him. “Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) circled around for a while then came back
“and said it was the slave of Mughirah. “Hazrat Umar (ra) asked, “The one who is a carpenter?” “Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) replied in the affirmative, upon which Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, ““May Allah destroy him, I had decided to afford him good treatment.
“I thank Allah that I did not die at the hands of one who professes Islam “(it is evident here too that the man was not a Muslim). “O Ibn Abbas, you and your father enjoyed having as many non-Arab slaves in Madinah “and Hazrat Abbas had the most slaves.”
“Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) answered, “If you so wish, we can rid them all “(i.e., if you desire, we can kill all the non-Arab slaves in Madinah.” “Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “That is not right, especially as they speak your language,
“face in the direction of your Qiblah to pray, and they make the same pilgrimage as you do” “(there were many slaves who had also accepted Islam). “We then picked Hazrat Umar (ra) up and took him back to his home. “We also entered his house with him.
“It felt as though such an affliction had not befallen the Muslims before. “Some would say nothing would happen, whilst others would say they feared he would pass away. “Eventually, he was brought some nabidh (beverage made from raisins or dates) “which he drank but it flowed out of his stomach.
“He was then brought some milk which he drank, but that too flowed out from his wound. “The people then realised that his demise was nigh.” Amr bin Maimun states: “We then went to him and others came too, and began praising him. “A young man came and said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful!
‘Be pleased with the glad tiding of Allah which you have received ‘on account of being a companion of the Holy Prophet (sa) ‘and of accepting Islam at the beginning, as you know full well. ‘Then you were elected as the Khalifah and you did justice, and then attained martyrdom.’
“Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “I hope these remain balanced, “whereby nothing is held against me, and nothing in my favour.” “When he was about to turn away to leave, his lower garment was touching the ground. “Hazrat Umar (ra) asked for the young man to be brought to him and said,
““My nephew, keep your cloth up, that way it will last longer “and not tear from dragging on the ground, “but this action is closer to righteousness in the sight of your Lord.” “In that era people would also unnecessarily show their pride by wearing long clothes “and it was a sign of their wealth,
“so this is why Hazrat Umar (ra) said that he should not develop any pride “and it is closer to righteousness this way. “He then asked Abdullah bin Umar (ra), “How much am I in debt?” “He calculated it and found it to be approximately 86,000 dirhams.
“Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “If my family property can pay it off then pay from it, “but if not then you should request it from Banu Adiyy bin Ka’b. “If their property too does not pay it off, “then you should request it from the Quraish, but not approach anyone else.
“You must pay this debt off on my behalf. “Go to Hazrat A’ishah (ra) and tell her that Umar conveys his greetings of peace. “Do not say I am the Leader of the Faithful, for today I am not the Leader of the believers.
“So tell her that Umar bin Khattab requests permission to be buried beside his two companions “(i.e. the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)).” It is mentioned in Umdatul Qari, the commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari that Hazrat Umar (ra) said this when he was certain of his impending demise,
And there was an indication in this for Hazrat A’ishah (ra) that she should not fear from the title ‘Leader of the Faithful’. “So Hazrat Abdullah (ra) conveyed his greetings and asked permission to enter. “He then entered the house and saw that Hazrat A’ishah (ra) was sat weeping.
“Hazrat Abdullah (ra) said, “Umar bin Khattab conveys greetings of peace to you “and requests your permission for him to be buried by the side of his two companions.” “Hazrat A’ishah (ra) replied, “I had reserved this space for myself, “but today I shall give him precedence over myself.” “When Hazrat Abdullah (ra) returned,
“Hazrat Umar (ra) was told that Hazrat Abdullah (ra) had arrived. “He therefore asked to be lifted up and one person supported him up. “Hazrat Umar (ra) asked, “What news do you bring me?” “Hazrat Abdullah (ra) answered, “O Leader of the Faithful, it is that which you desired. “Hazrat A’ishah (ra) has granted permission.”
“Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “All praise belongs to Allah! Nothing concerned me more than this. “When I pass away, carry me there. “Then convey my greetings and say that Umar bin Khattab requests permission. “If she gives permission, you should enter the room to bury me,
“but if she turns me back, take me to the cemetery of the Muslims.” “Hazrat Ummul Mu’minin Hafsah (ra) then came along with other women. “We left when we saw them. “They entered and wept there for some time. “When some men had asked to enter the room, and came inside,
“the women went to other side and we could hear them crying from inside. “The people said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! ‘Appoint a successor after you as part of your will.’ “Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘I do not find anyone more suitable for the station of Khilafat
‘than the following persons whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had been pleased with ‘before he passed away’. “Then Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the names of Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Usman (ra), “Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Sa’d (ra) “and Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra),
“and said, ‘Abdullah bin Umar (ra) will be a witness to you, ‘but he will not be entitled to the station of Khilafat.’ “Hazrat Umar (ra) then said, ‘If Khilafat is granted to Sa’d (ra), then he will be Khalifa: ‘otherwise whoever becomes the Khalifa should continue to seek assistance from Sa’d (ra)
‘because I have not removed him from his office ‘owing to any incompetence or dishonesty on his part.’ “Hazrat Umar (ra) added, ‘I first and foremost recommend that ‘my successor takes care of the Muhajireen; to know their rights and to protect their honour. ‘I also urge to show kindness to the Ansar,
‘for they allowed faith to enter their homes in Medina even before the arrival of the Muhajireen. ‘I recommend that he should accept the good deeds from among them ‘and whoso is at fault from among them, they ought to be forgiven.
‘I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns, ‘as they are the protectors of Islam ‘and the source of wealth and a means of frustrating the enemy. ‘I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent.
‘I also recommend that he (i.e. the next Khalifah) do good to the Arab Bedouins, ‘as they are the natives of Arabia and they make up the core following of Islam. ‘He should take that from among their possessions which they are not in need of ‘and distribute it amongst their needy.
‘I also recommend him concerning those people ‘who are under the protection of Allah and His Messenger (sa), ‘to fulfil the covenants that have been established with them and to defend them ‘and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.’ “When he passed away, we took him and set out on foot.
“Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar greeted Hazrat Aisha (ra) “and said that Umar bin Khattab seeks permission to enter. “Hazrat Aisha (ra) said he should be brought in, “and so he was taken in and laid beside his two friends. “After his burial, the men who had been named by Hazrat Umar (ra)
“gathered for the election of the next Khalifa and thus that process commenced.” These accounts are ongoing and I will continue speaking about this in the future. Germany’s Annual Convention (Jalsa Salana) is starting today. May Allah the Almighty make it blessed. May as many German Ahmadis as possible take benefit from it.
The Convention will be for two days; God-willing I will deliver an address at the concluding session tomorrow which will be broadcast on MTA at about 3:30pm according to the time here (in the UK). The remainder of the Jalsa proceedings in Germany beginning from today will be live streamed for the Germans to watch.
As such, they should take maximum benefit. After the prayers, I will offer two funeral prayers in absentia, which I will mention now. The first funeral is of Qamaruddin Sahib, a Missionary from Indonesia, who recently passed away at the age of 65. He accepted Ahmadiyyat in 1972 at the age of 15. After his primary education, he dedicated himself for the service of the Community. Then he went to Pakistan to obtain his religious education. On 30 June 1986, he obtained his Shahid Degree and then in July 1986 he was appointed as a Missionary.
He used to recite the Holy Qur’an in a beautiful and melodious voice. He was a sincere and passionate servant of the Community. His tenure of service spanned about 35 years. His wife says, “He used to tell me that I am not just the wife of a Missionary,
“rather I should be at the forefront of service to the Community.” With regards to his obedience and love for Khilafat she writes, “His obedience and love for Khilafat were exceptional. “He treated young and old with respect, whenever speaking to another Ahmadi, “he always enjoined love and loyalty for the Community
“and would encourage others to serve the Community as much as they could. “Whenever he met a non-Ahmadi, “he would make sure to propagate the message (of Islam Ahmadiyyat) to them “and would speak to them with great love and from the heart which would make others happy. “During his illness, he would wake up
“an hour and-a-half before Fajr (the prayer right before dawn) “and would offer Tahajjud (pre-dawn voluntary prayers) and would recite the Holy Qur’an. “He would also walk to the mosque as long as he was able to.” His son Umar Farooq Sahib, who is a Missionary and professor at Jamia Ahmadiyya Indonesia, says,
“Both at home and outside, at times he would be walking “and beautifully reciting some portion of the Holy Qur’an. “He also translated and revised translations of the books of the Promised Messiah (as). “Especially while doing this translation work, “he would often recite the Qasidah (Arabic poem in praise of the Holy Prophet (sa)).
“Whenever he related incidents from the life of the Holy Prophet (sa) “his eyes would brim with tears.” He says, “He would often relate to me incidents of the trials, hardships, “and sacrifices of other Ahmadis and would also relate his own incidents of enduring hardships.”
His younger son Zafarullah Khan says, “He was very forbearing and brave person. “He led a life of simplicity and would remain contentment with what he had.” May Allah the Almighty bestow His forgiveness and mercy upon him and elevate his station.
The next funeral is of Sabiha Haroon Sahiba, wife of late Sultan Haroon Khan Sahib. She recently passed away at the age of 73. Sabiha Haroon Sahiba’s family was introduced to Ahmadiyyat through her father’s acceptance, who did Bai’at at the hands of Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) at the age of 18 after doing his own research. Then her paternal grandfather accepted Ahmadiyyat after his son. Allah the Almighty granted her three sons and three daughters.
One of her sons is the son-in-law of the Fourth Caliph (rh). Her elder son Sultan Muhammad Khan says, “My mother’s oldest son tragically passed away at the age of two. “At the funeral, the Third Caliph (rh) said that “Allah the Almighty would grant her a son in his stead
“who would be beautiful and would live a long life. “He also said to her husband Malik Sultan that “he could see their son becoming a young man standing shoulder to shoulder with him.” Then, her son Sultan Ahmad Khan says, “From my childhood till now,
“I have been very fortunate to spend a great deal of time with my mother. “She was extremely loving and forgiving of mistakes. “She never spoke behind anyone’s back.” Her daughter Mahmooda Sultana says, “My mother was pious, and had a quiet disposition. “She possessed many great qualities.
“She truly loved the Community and had a high level of love and obedience for Khilafat, “and she would advise the same to others. “She possessed good morals and cared for her relatives. “Her hospitality was renowned in her family. “She never hurt anyone’s sentiments;
“she had a strong aversion to backbiting and always advised us to abstain from it. “If ever there was a gathering in which people were backbiting, “she would leave that gathering and her displeasure would be visible from her expression. “She was always forgiving.”
She says, “She never even prayed against the person who fatally attacked my father “and would always say that she prayed for Allah to guide him. “She had a special place in her heart for the ill who were impoverished “and would help them in a very discrete manner.”
Her other daughter Wajiha Sahiba says, “She was quiet by nature and gave a great deal in alms. “She would give alms discretely and did not like to mention anything about it.” May Allah the Almighty bestow her with forgiveness and mercy and enable her children to carry on her virtuous qualities.
All praise is due to Allah We laud Him, we beseech help from Him and ask His protection; we confide in Him, we trust Him alone and we seek protection against the evils and mischief of our souls and from the bad results of our deeds.
Whomsoever He guides on the right path, none can misguide him; and whosoever He declares misled, none can guide him onto the right path. And we bear witness that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah. We bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His servant and Messenger.
O servants of Allah! May Allah be merciful to you. Verily, Allah commands you to act with justice, to confer benefits upon each other and to do good to others as one does to one’s kindred and forbids evil which pertain to your own selves
And evils which affect others and prohibits revolts against a lawful authority. He warns you against being unmindful. You remember Allah; He too will remember you; call Him and He will make a response to your call. And verily divine remembrance is the highest virtue.