Friday Sermon – Khalifatul Masih V – Mirza Masroor Ahmad – Year 2022
Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah
I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah Come to Prayer Come to Prayer Come to success Come to success Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest There is none worthy of worship except Allah Peace and blessings of Allah be upon you.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. He is One and has no partner. and I bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His Servant and Messenger. After this I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the accursed. In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, The Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we implore for help. Guide us in the right path – The path of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy blessings,
Those who have not incurred displeasure, and those who have not gone astray. I will mention some accounts relating to the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra). When the time of the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) drew near, he called for Hazrat Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf and said, “Tell me about Umar (ra).”
Hazrat Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf replied, “O Caliph of the Messenger (sa) of Allah! “By God, Hazrat Umar (ra) is even better than the opinion you hold about him, “except for the fact that he is strict in his disposition.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “He is strict as he sees leniency in me.
“However, if he was entrusted with the leadership, he would give up many of his habits. “I have observed that when I treated someone in a strict manner, “he would try to reconcile me with that individual “and if I showed leniency to someone, he would ask me to be stricter.”
Following this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called for Hazrat Usman bin Affan (ra) and asked him about Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Usman (ra) said, “His inner state is even better than his outer state “and there is none among us who is like him.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said to both of them,
“Do not disclose to anyone else what I have just discussed with you!” Following this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “If I do not choose Hazrat Umar (ra), “I will look no further than Usman “and they will have the authority to govern your affairs in the best manner.
“It is my desire now to move away from governing your affairs “and join those who have passed away from among you.” During the days of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) illness, Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidillah approached him and said, “You have made Hazrat Umar (ra) the Khalifa of the people,
“even though you can see how he treats people in your presence. “What will be the situation when he is alone and you will meet your Lord “and He will question you about your people?” As Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was lying down, he asked to be sat up.
When he was sat up and leaning against some support, he said, “Are you making me fearful of Allah? When I will meet my Lord and He will question me, “I will say, ‘I appointed the best among Your servants as their Khalifa.’” Referencing books of history,
Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states the following in this regard, “When the time of the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) drew near, “he sought counsel from the companions as to who to appoint as the Khalifa. “Most companions expressed their opinion of appointing Hazrat Umar (ra) as their leader.
“The only objection that some (companions) raised was the fact that “he is rather strict in his disposition and that he might treat people in a strict manner. “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘This strictness of his was limited to the time ‘when he was not yet entrusted with a responsibility.
‘However, now that a responsibility will be entrusted to him, ‘his strictness will become balanced as well.’ “Hence, all companions agreed on the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar (ra). “As Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) health had deteriorated quite a lot, “he took the support of his wife, Asma,
“and went to the mosque in a state that his legs were unstable and his hands were shaking. “Addressing all of the Muslims, he said, ‘For many days, I have continuously contemplated over this matter ‘that if I pass away, who should be your Khalifa.
‘In the end, after much contemplation and supplications in this regard, ‘I deem it appropriate to appoint Umar (ra) as your Khalifa. ‘As such, Umar (ra) will be your Khalifa after my demise.’ “All of the companions and all the people agreed to this appointment “and pledged initiation at the hands of Hazrat Umar (ra)
“following the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further expounds on the matter whilst answering the allegation of why there was a nomination. He states, “If it is said that a Khalifa can only be appointed upon being elected by the people,
“then why did Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) nominate Hazrat Umar (ra), “then the answer is that he did not arbitrarily nominate him, “rather it is proven that he first consulted with other Companions. “If there is a difference, it is only that “other Khulafah have been elected after the demise of the (previous) Khalifa,
“while Hazrat Umar (ra) was chosen during the lifetime of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). “However he did not just stop there “(Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did not simply deem that to be enough to simply consult a few Companions “(and then announce Hazrat Umar (ra) as the Khalifa),
“rather, despite his intense weakness, with the help of his wife, “he went to the mosque and said to the people, ‘O people, after consulting the Companions, ‘I have chosen Umar to be the Khalifa after me. Do you accept his Khilafat?’
“Upon this, everyone expressed their approval. Hence, this too was a form of election.” Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) illness and his will are further detailed in Tarikh Al-Tabari. It is recorded that the cause for Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) illness was that on Monday 7 Jamadiul Awwal,
He performed ablution and it was very cold on that particular day. Due to this, he developed a fever which lasted for fifteen days. It was so severe that he was unable to attend the prayers. He instructed Hazrat Umar (ra) to lead the prayers.
People would come to visit him, however his condition deteriorated day by day. At the time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was residing in the home which had been granted to him by the Holy Prophet (sa) which was situated right in front of Hazrat Usman bin Affan’s (ra) home.
During his illness, it was Hazrat Usman (ra) who tended to him the most. He remained ill for fifteen days. Someone suggested to him that it would be beneficial for him to call a physician. He replied, “He has already seen me.” People asked him what the physician had said, to which he replied,
(ARABIC) “I do as I please.” It is stated in another narration that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) fell ill, people asked if they should call a physician for him, to which Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “He has already seen me and said (ARABIC). “I will surely do whatever I please.””
He meant that it was Allah the Almighty’s will to summon him and thus there was no need to call a physician. On Tuesday, 22 Jamadiul Akhir 13 AH, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) passed away at the age of 63. His era of Khilafat spanned two years, three months and ten days.
The very last words spoken by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were the words of the blessed verse of the Holy Qur’an: “Let death come to me in a state of submission to Thy will and join me to the righteous.” The words imprinted on the ring of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were: (ARABIC) “How Great is Allah Who is all-Powerful.” Hazrat Aishah (ra) relates that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had stated
That after preparing his coffin and funeral, they should see to whether anything else remains to be done. All the affairs had been entrusted to Hazrat Umar (ra), but in case there was anything left. And if there was something then that should also be entrusted to Hazrat Umar (ra).
With regards to preparing his coffin and burial, he stated, “the cloth which I have on me should be washed “and use this along with the other cloths in which you wrap my body.” Hazrat Aishah (ra) submitted, “This cloth is old and there should be a new piece of cloth to wrap the body.”
Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “Those who are alive have a greater right to wear new clothes than those who have passed away.” He stated that it would be better if the new cloth is given to someone who is alive. Hazrat Aishah (ra) narrates
That Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had stated as part of his will that his wife, Hazrat Asma bint Umais would wash his body. Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) son, Hazrat Abdur Rahman assisted his mother in this task. His body was shrouded in two cloths, one of which was used to wash his body.
It is also narrated that his body was shrouded in three pieces of cloth. Thereafter, his body was placed on the bed of the Holy Prophet (sa). This was the same bed which Hazrat Aishah (ra) would sleep upon and his body was taken from this same bed for his funeral.
Hazrat Umar (ra) led the funeral prayer of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) between the grave of the Holy Prophet (sa) and his pulpit and he was buried beside the Holy Prophet (sa) in the night in the same enclosure. Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) head was placed in line with the Holy Prophet’s (sa) shoulders.
At the time of the burial, Hazrat Umar bin Al-Khattab (ra), Hazrat Usman bin Affan (ra), Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidullah and Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr came down into the grave and did the burial. Ibn Shihab narrates that Hazrat Umar (ra) buried Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) at night.
Hazrat Salim bin Abdillah relates from his father that Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) demise occurred due to his sorrow over the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). This is because after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) body continuously weakened until he passed away.
Some of the historians have also reported that cause of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) demise was due to eating the food which a Jewish person had poisoned. However, most of the historians have rejected this narration. Hazrat Aishah (ra) narrates that as the time of his demise drew close,
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) enquired what day it was. People informed him that it was a Monday. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “If I pass away today, “then do not wait till tomorrow because that day and that night is dearer to me “which is closest to the Holy Prophet (sa).”
In other words, he wanted to be buried on that same day. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “After my demise, “my inheritance should be distributed according to the Qur’anic injunctions.” Likewise, according to another narration he assigned a fifth of his wealth in his will for his relatives who were not heirs to it.
In relation to the wives and children of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) it is recorded that he had four wives. The first was Qutailah bint Abd al-Uzzah. There are differing views with regards to her acceptance of Islam. She was the mother of Hazrat Abdullah and Hazrat Asma.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) divorced her in the era of ignorance. She once went to Hazrat Asma’s house in Madinah, i.e. her daughter, with gifts of clarified butter and cheese. However, Hazrat Asma refused the gifts, and didn’t let her enter her home.
She called for Hazrat A’ishah (ra) to ask the Holy Prophet (sa) in this regard. She then asked Hazrat A’ishah (ra) what was the verdict of the Holy Prophet (sa) after her mother came in that manner bringing gifts and after she refused to let her in.
Upon this the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed her to let her enter her home and to also accept her gifts. His second wife was Hazrat Umm-e-Ruman bint Amir. She belonged to the Banu Kinanah bin Khuzaimah. Her previous husband Harith bin Sakhbarah passed away in Makkah.
Thereafter her marriage took place with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). She entered the fold of Islam in the early period, pledged her allegiance to the Holy Prophet (sa), and also migrated to Madinah. Hazrat Abdur Rahman and Hazrat Aishah (ra) were born to her. She passed away in 6 AH in Madinah.
(Upon her demise) the Holy Prophet (sa) came down into her grave and prayed for her forgiveness. His third wife was Hazrat Asma bint Umais bin Ma’bad bin Harith. Her title was Umm Abdillah. She had accepted Islam and pledged allegiance to the Holy Prophet (sa) even before entering Dar-e-Arqam.
She participated in the first migration. She first migrated alongside her previous husband Hazrat Ja’far bin Abi Talib to Abyssinia, and from there she migrated to Madinah in 7 AH. After her husband was martyred in 8 AH during the Battle of Mu’tah, she married Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
She gave birth to Muhammad bin Abi Bakr. His fourth wife was Hazrat Habibah bint Kharijah bin Zaid bin Abi Zuhair. She belonged to the Khazraj branch of the Ansar. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would stay with her in the neighbouring area of Madinah called Sun’a.
She gave birth to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) daughter, Umm-e-Kulthum, who was born a short while after his demise. He had four sons and three daughters. His first son was Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr. He was the eldest son of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
He accepted Islam during the treaty of Hudaibiyah and remained firmly attached to Islam. He had the honour of being in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sa). He was renowned for his bravery and courage. After accepting Islam he was greatly praised for his character. His second son was Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr.
He played an important role in the migration of the Holy Prophet (sa) to Madinah. He would spend the entire day in Makkah, gathering information from the Makkans, and then at night he would secretly go to the cave and relay that information to the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra),
And then return in the morning to Makkah. He was hit by an arrow during the battle in Ta’if, and the wound sustained from this did not heal. Eventually, as a result of this he attained martyrdom during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat. His third son was Muhammad bin Abi Bakr.
He was born from Hazrat Asma bint Umais. He was born in Dhu al-Hulaifah on the occasion of Hajjat al-Wida (farewell pilgrimage). He was raised by Hazrat Ali (ra), and during the era of Hazrat Ali’s (ra) Khilafat, he appointed him as the governor of Egypt. That is where we has killed.
According to some narration, his name has been mentioned among those who killed Hazrat Usman (ra), and this is why he was killed. Allah knows best. His fourth child was Hazrat Asma bint Abi Bakr. She was known by her title of Dhat al-Nataqain (the one with two waist belts).
She was older than Hazrat A’ishah (ra). The Holy Prophet (sa) gave her the title of Dhat al-Nataqain because during the migration she prepared a food container for the Holy Prophet (sa) and her father, but seeing as she had nothing to tie it with,
She tore her waist belt and used that to tie the container. Hence, the way in which she prepared this food was by tying the container with the cloth from her waist belt. She was married to Hazrat Zubair bin al-Awwam and she migrated to Madinah whilst pregnant.
After completing the migration she gave birth to Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair, who was the first child born after the migration. Hazrat Asma reached the age of 100 and passed away in Makkah in 73 AH. The fifth child was the Mother of Believers, Hazrat Aishah bint Abu Bakr (ra).
She was the wife of the Holy Prophet (sa). She was the greatest scholar among women. The Holy Prophet (sa) gave her the title of Umm Abdullah (Mother of Abdullah). The Holy Prophet (sa) had exemplary love for her. Imam Sha’bi says that whenever Masruq related a narration from Hazrat Aishah (ra),
He would say, “I was told by Sadiqah bint Siddiq, “who is the beloved of Allah’s beloved and whose exoneration was revealed by Allah.” She passed away at the age of 63 in 57 AH. According to another narration, she passed away in 58 AH. The sixth child was Umm Kulthoom bint Abu Bakr.
She was born to Hazrat Habibah bint Kharijah. At the time of his demise, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said to Hazrat Aishah (ra), “You have two brothers and two sisters.” Hazrat Aishah (ra) said, “I know of my sister Asma’, but who is my second sister?”
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “She who is in in Kharijah’s womb.” In other words, she was yet to be born, and the child would be a girl. He said, “I am convinced that she will have a daughter.” And that is exactly what happened.
Umm Kulthoom was born after the demise of the Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Umm Kulthoom was married to Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidullah who was martyred in Jang-e-Jamal. According to some narrations, one of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) daughters was married to Hazrat Bilal
And it is also stated that this daughter was from one of his four wives’ previous husband. Regarding the system of government, it is recorded that whenever a matter came before Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), the manner in which he governed was that if a matter needed to be deliberated upon,
Then he would consult with people who gave sound advice and if he needed advice from people with jurisprudential knowledge, he would consult with both the Muhajireen and the Ansar and would also call Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Usman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf,
Hazrat Mu’adh bin Jabal, Hazrat Ubayy bin Ka’ab, and Hazrat Ziad bin Thabit. Other times, he would call the Muhajireen and Ansar in greater number. Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states in the commentary of “Ponder over this word; it is apparent that there is a single person seeking consultation, “not even two, and the people being consulted are three or more. “Then that person should ponder over the advice received and thereafter is the commandment, “(ARABIC) (“And when thou art determined then put thy trust in Allah”)
“When one is convinced of something, “then they should act upon it without any care for what anyone else says.” In other words, the person seeking consultation should take the advice, analyse all aspects and then should act upon it without caring about what anyone else has to say. He further writes,
“We find great examples of this determination in the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). “When people started becoming apostates, “it was suggested that he (Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) should hold back the army “that was about to be sent under the command of Usama, however he responded,
‘This army was commissioned by the Holy Prophet (sa), hence I cannot hold it back. ‘The son of Abu Quhafah does not have the power to do so.’ “He did hold back some people, “such as stopping Hazrat Umar (ra) who was about to depart along with the army.
“Then, it was said regarding Zakat that “in order to avoid people becoming apostates, it should be remitted. “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, ‘Had they given the Holy Prophet (sa) so much as the rope used to tie a camel, ‘I will ensure to take even that.
‘Even if you all leave me and the wild beasts in the jungle join the apostates, ‘then I will fight them all on my own.’ “This was an example of determination, and you know what transpired thereafter. “(This was the determination of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
“(Even though people had suggested differently, but what happened after that?) “As a result of this exemplary determination, Allah the Almighty opened the door to victories. “Remember, when a person fears God, others cannot overawe them. This is the reality of Khilafat.” Establishment of the treasury; during the blessed era of the Holy Prophet (sa),
He would distribute any wealth received from spoils, Khums, Fai, Zakat, etc., immediately in the presence of everyone at the mosque. In this way, it can be said that the department of the treasury existed during the time of the Holy Prophet (sa). However, during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra),
The various conquests meant that along with income under various heads, there was an increased influx of spoils and Jizyah. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) felt the need to establish a treasury where the wealth could be stored until it was distributed or spent.
Hence, after consulting with senior Companions, he dedicated a home for this purpose. However, this was ultimately the treasure only in name, as Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) always strove to immediately distribute any wealth that was brought in. According to some narrations,
The responsibilities of the department of the treasury were entrusted to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah. Initially, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) established the treasury in the valley of Sun’a, however there was no guardian appointed over it. Sun’a is located in the environs of Madinah, located about two miles from the Prophet’s (sa) Mosque.
Once, someone asked him why he hadn’t appointed anyone to guard over the treasury. He replied, “A lock is enough for its protection “(in other words it was enough for there to be a lock) “because he would distribute anything that went into the treasury
“and it was often empty to the point that there would be nothing left. “Then when he moved to Madinah, he moved the treasury to his own home. “His practice was that any wealth which went into the treasury “would be distributed to the point that it became empty.
“He would give an equal share to everyone when he distributed the wealth “and it was from the same wealth that he would also purchase camels, “horses and weaponry and distribute it in Allah’s way. “Once, he bought some sheets from bedouins and distributed them among the widows in Madinah.”
He must have done this on multiple occasions, however this has been recorded once in the narrations. A stipend from the treasury was stipulated for Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Regarding this, it is recorded that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was elected as the Khalifa,
A stipend was fixed for him from the treasury in order to fulfil his needs. Hazrat Aishah (ra) relates, “When Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) became the Khalifa, he said, ‘My people know that my occupation did not hinder me from providing sustenance for my family.
‘I had enough income to run my household with ease. ‘However, now I have become occupied in tending to the matters of the Muslims. ‘So now, Abu Bakr’s family will be provided for from the treasury ‘and he (as in Abu Bakr) will take this wealth
‘and work for the Muslims and increase it through trade.’ “Hence the Muslims stipulated for him the annual amount of six thousand dirham. “Some say that he only approved as much as he needed.” He was the first Wali, or leader of government, whose expenditures were approved by his people. According to one narration,
It is mentioned that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became the Khalifa, one day in the morning, he set out towards the market. He was carrying on his shoulders the garments he used in his business. And Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah. They said, “O Khalifa of the Messenger (sa), where are you going?” He replied, “to the market.” They said “why are you doing this when you are the leader of the Muslims?” He said, “How will I feed my family?”
They took him alongside them, saying that they would assign a portion for him. Hence, an annual stipend of three thousand dirham was established. According to other narrations, the stipend was six thousand dirham as mentioned earlier. According to some, he was given a total of six thousand dirham over the course of his Khilafat.
Similarly, according to the books of history, it is almost unanimously recorded that although Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) received a stipend from the treasury in order to fulfil his needs and those of his family, however he returned all the amount before his demise.
Hence, it is stated in one narration that as his demise drew near, he made a will for his land to be sold and for the amount to be used in order to pay the treasury back for the amount he had used in personal expenses.
It is recorded in another narration that when Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) demise was drawing near, he said to Hazrat Aishah (ra), “Since I became the Khalifa, “I have not used a single dinar or dirham belonging to the nation. “I would eat little and wear thick clothes.
“Furthermore, the following are considered spoils for Muslims; servants, camels and fabric. “Hence, after my passing, all of these things should be sent to Umar.” Hazrat A’ishah (ra) states, “When he passed away, I sent those things to Hazrat Umar (ra).
“Upon seeing them, he began to cry to the extent that his tears fell to the ground as he said, ‘may Allah have mercy on Abu Bakr, he has placed those after him in difficulty’” When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) passed away, Hazrat Umar (ra) called a few Companions to take stock of the treasury,
Only to find that there was nothing there. It was empty, as everything had been distributed. He (Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) also established the department of arbitration. Although the department of arbitration had not taken systematic form during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra),
However, he had assigned the duties of this department to Hazrat Umar (ra). It is mentioned in one narration that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became the Khalifa, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “I will serve in the courts on your behalf.”
Hazrat Umar (ra) waited for one year, however no two people came to him with a dispute. No quarrels, disputes or issues would arise and so the number of cases was very low. If there ever was a case,
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would take time out for it himself in order to resolve the matter. Hazrat Umar (ra) was the head of the department of arbitration, and the following Companions had been assigned to help him: Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Mu’adh bin Jabal, Hazrat Ubayy bin Ka’ab,
Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit and Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud. Hazrat Umar (ra) relates, “There was such a state of peace, security and honesty at the time, “that months would pass by and no two people would come to me in order to resolve a matter.” Regarding the department of jurisprudence,
It is recorded that as new tribes and dwellings entered into the fold of Islam and in light of the circumstances, various jurisprudential matters were arising, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) established the department of jurisprudence for the ease and guidance of the general Muslim population.
He appointed Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Usman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Hazrat Ubayy bin Ka’ab, Hazrat Mua’dh bin Jabal and Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit to issue edicts, because they were all distinct from others in their deep understanding, knowledge and interpretation of the faith. According to one narration,
Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud was also among the Companions approved to issue edicts. No one else had permission to issue edicts except for them. One historian writes regarding the department of inscription, “In modern terminology, a scribe can be likened to a secretary in government.”
Such as secretaries who take notes in meetings and relays them. During Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat, although a system of administration had not yet been established, however, there were certain people assigned to write down executive orders, treaties and other things which required to be written down.
Hazrat Abdullah bin Arqam had been assigned the duty of inscription from the time of the Holy Prophet (sa) and he was also entrusted this duty during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). According to one narration, Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit tended to the department of inscription
During the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and there would be times when other Companions who were present would take up this task, such as Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Usman (ra). Then with regards to the military department it is written
That during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) there was no official military establishment and at the time for Jihad, every Muslim was a soldier. The army would be split according to tribes and every tribe had a separate leader; above which there was one office of Amir al-Umara (leader of the leaders),
Which was formed by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). In order to give out provisions for battle, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had ensured that out of the various sources of income, he would take out a portion for the expenditure of military provisions. Through this, weapons and animals for conveyance would be bought.
Furthermore, certain grazing grounds had been set aside for tending to the horses and camels used in Jihad. One biographer writes: “Hazrat Abu Bakr’s system for military governance “was closer to the Bedouin custom that was prevalent among the Arab tribes “even prior to the era of the Holy Prophet (sa).
“At the time, the Islamic government did not have an established army, “rather, each person would present themselves for military services. “Whenever there was a declaration of war, “the tribes would set out for war and head towards the enemy with their military provisions. “They would not go to the headquarters for provisions or weapons,
“rather they would organise that themselves. “The (Islamic) government did not even pay them a salary, “instead they deemed the spoils of war as remuneration for their services. “4/5 of the spoils of war obtained “would be distributed amongst those who took part in the battle
“and 1/5 would be sent to the Khalifa in the capital, “which would be put in the treasury (Bait al-Mal). “The expenditure on smaller needs of the state “would be fulfilled by means of the Khums (1/5 of the spoils of war). “The instructions issued by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) regarding combat
“were relayed to the Amir al-Umara and the commanders.” With regards to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), it is written that he would issue instructions to the commanders and leaders going off for battle. Addressing Hazrat Usamah’s army, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said: “I advise you regarding ten matters; do not act dishonestly,
“do not steal from the spoils of war, do not break a covenant, do not mutilate the corpses, “do not kill a small child nor anyone elderly or women; “do not cut any date palm trees nor burn them, “nor should you cut down any fruit bearing tree,
“do not slaughter any goat, cow or camel except for consumption. “(i.e. only slaughter them when needed, not any other time) “You shall pass some people who have dedicated themselves to the church, “thus, leave them be and do not harm them in any way (i.e. monks, etc.)
“You will pass by some people who will present you food in different kinds of vessels, “recite the name of Allah and then eat from them. “You shall also encounter some people who have shaved the hair on their head “except for patches on four sides,
“ensure that you see to them because they are the ones who have instigated war against the Muslims. “Depart with the name of Allah, may Allah protect you from every injury “and safeguard you from illness and the plague.” Similarly, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Yazid bin Abi Sufyan for battle in Syria,
He said – I have mentioned this in the previous sermon as well, I will mention the summary of the key points; every office bearer should bear this in mind; Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “I have appointed you as the governor,
“so that I may test you and train you by sending you to another place. “If you discharge your responsibilities in an excellent manner “then I shall appoint you once again for this task and enable you to excel further. “However, if you show negligence, then I shall remove you from your office.
“Adhere to Taqwa (righteousness). “Allah is aware of your inner conditions just as He is aware of your outer state. “Amongst the people, those who are closest to Allah “are those who do the greatest justice to their bond of friendship with Allah “and the person who is closest to Allah amongst the people
“is one who attains His nearness through his conduct.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further stated, “Refrain from harbouring malice for Allah is most displeased by this. “Treat your army well and in a kind manner. “When you advise them do so in a brief manner for lengthy talks cause one to forget many things.
“Keep yourself reformed and people themselves will reform for you. “(If leaders and office-bearers reform themselves, “(then people will also act in the correct manner.) “Offer your prayers at their prescribed time “whilst performing all the Ruku and Sujood (bowing and prostrations).” The observance of prayers is extremely important.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then further stated, “When the enemies’ representatives come to you, treat them with respect and dignity. “However, let them only stay for a brief period of time so that they do not spend too much time. “They should leave from your army quickly.
“(They should not spend too much time amongst the soldiers and should leave quickly). “This is so that they cannot gather any information about the army. “Do not inform them of your activities and give very little information.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further stated,
“Do not allow your people to speak to them and nor allow them to meet everyone. “(it should not be the case that the emissaries are able to roam freely and meet anyone they want. “(In fact, they should only speak to the relevant person “(and not be able to roam amongst the public).
“When you speak to them, do not reveal your secrets.” In other words, the person they meet should also be very cautious. Then, with regards to seeking consultation, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “Whenever you wish to seek advice, speak the truth and you will receive the correct advice.
“Inform them of all the details and then seek advice. “Do not conceal your information from your advisors, “otherwise you will incur loss owing to your own fault.” With regards to an office-bearer, or a commander gathering information about the events in the day and how to acquire this,
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “Speak to your friends in the night “(sit in the night and select a few people and speak to them) “and you will be able to gather a lot of information. “You should often inspect their military posts without informing them from before. “(Supervision is also important).
“If you find any post unattended, you should admonish that person.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further stated, “But do not be haste in giving out punishment but neither become negligent of it. “(both aspects are important; one should neither be haste in giving punishment or issuing a verdict
“(and nor should one become completely neglectful and not say anything.) “Do not become neglectful of your army and also do not humiliate them by spying upon them. “(Do not spy on your own people as this will cause them humiliation). “Do not mention their confidential information to people.
“(whatever confidential information you receive about them “(should not be shared with anyone else). “Do not sit with useless people, rather sit with those who are truthful and loyal. “Do not show cowardice otherwise people will also follow suit. “Do not be dishonest in matters relating to the spoils of war
“for such an act takes one closer to becoming dependent upon others “and prevents one from victory and success.” There are many points which I have not mentioned in this and as I mentioned earlier that apart from military officers these are also important for our office-bearers and they ought to be mindful of these.
It is only then that our various tasks will be blessed. As I mentioned earlier, the reason why I am mentioning this summary again is so that our office-bearers remember these. With regards to the division of the Islamic government into various regions it is written
That this was divided into various regions in the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat and he appointed leaders and governors for each region. Madinah was the capital and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) resided there as the Khalifa. With regards to the appointments of the governors it is written that
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed the practise of the Holy Prophet (sa) by appointing the governors for the region from among its pious and virtuous people. In the region of Taif and various other regions, he appointed its governors from amongst its own people. Whenever Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would appoint anyone as a governor,
He would also officially declare their appointment in writing and would often outline the route as well of how to reach his respective area and he would also mention the various areas which he would have to pass by. He would do this particularly in the case where he would be appointing someone
Which had not been conquered and were not in the control of the Islamic Khilafat. This was quite evident during the conquests of Syria and Iraq and during the battles against the apostates. At times, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would make various regions join with others, this particularly happened after the battles against the apostates.
For example, Kindah was placed under the authority of Hazrat Ziad bin Labid, who was also the governor of Hadhrmaut and thus he governed both regions. During the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), when the governors were appointed,
The first aspect that was looked at as a criteria was their level of adherence to Islam. Moreover, whilst appointing the governors, preference was given to those who had enjoyed the company of the Holy Prophet (sa). Thus, one criteria in this regard was
That whosoever had been appointed for any task by the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would never make any change in that appointment. For example, the Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Hazrat Usama (ra) as the commander of the army. After (the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa)) some people suggested
To appoint a more senior companion for this role based on certain reasoning, however Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) kept Hazrat Usama (ra) as the commander. Another factor which Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) took into consideration was those who had spent the most time in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa).
This is why he mostly entrusted various responsibilities to those people who had accepted Islam prior the conquest of Makkah. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) never gave preference to any particular tribe or relation in this regard. It is owing to this strong principle of his and high standard
That the various governors and leaders appointed by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would do their utmost to the best of their abilities in serving Islam and the Muslims. Whilst appointing the governors, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would also take into account the views of the local people as well.
In this regard Hazrat Ala’ bin Hazrami served as the governor of Bahrain during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (sa) and later owing to reasons he was sent elsewhere. Then, during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat, the people of Bahrain requested Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)
If Hazrat Ala’ bin Hazrami could send to their area again and so he reappointed him as the governor of Bahrain and sent him back there. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also imparted guidance to the governors. In relation to this it is written that at the time of appointing governors,
Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would personally grant them guidance. In Tarikh Al-Tabari, it is written that whilst advising Amr bin Al-Aas and Walid bin Uqbah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “instil the fear of God within you and in your actions. “If one fears Allah, then He shall open avenues towards ease
“and provides him sustenance through means which one could not even imagine. “Allah forgives the sins of those who fear Him and grants them reward in abundance. “Among the advice which the servants of Allah impart to one another, “the best advice is to instil the fear of Allah.
“You are embarking upon one of the paths of God, “thus if you show negligence in any matter which grants strength to your faith “and protects your government then this will be a crime that cannot be forgiven. “Therefore, there should not be any kind of slackness or negligence on your part.”
Hazrat Mastaurid bin Shidad relates that, “I heard the Holy Prophet (sa) say that, ‘Whoever is appointed as a governor, he should keep only one wife ‘and if he does not have a servant, then he can keep one servant.
‘If he does not have a house of his own to live in then he should keep one house for himself.’” Mastaurid further narrated that “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, ‘whoever takes anything besides this they have acted with dishonesty and is a thief.’” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would keep watch over
Every action of the various governors and leaders that had been appointed. Since these people had been in the blessed company of the Holy Prophet (sa), therefore unlike Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would overlook any minor error or mistake.
Although he would keep a watch over them but he would forgive their minor shortcomings. It is mentioned in Tarikh Al-Tabari that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would never place restrictions upon his governors, but if they ever were to commit a serious error then he would indeed admonish them in the appropriate manner,
Regardless of the position they held. With regards to Hazrat Muhajir bin Umaiyyah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) found out that he had removed the teeth of a woman who would insult the Muslims. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) immediately wrote a letter admonishing Hazrat Muhajir.
In fact, even if he heard of any error committed by Hazrat Khalid bin Walid, he would immediately admonish him. With regards to the responsibilities of the leaders and governors it is written that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had assigned various responsibilities and duties to the governors
Who had been appointed in the various regions, cities and towns. These governors and their deputies were also assigned with responsibilities related to financial matters. They would take the Zakat from the rich and affluent members of their areas and distribute it amongst the poor members
And they would take the Jizya from the non-Muslims and send it to the treasury. This particular responsibility of theirs had been established since the time of the Holy Prophet (sa). Moreover, the treaties which had been established in the time of the Holy Prophet (sa) were renewed once again.
The governor of Najran renewed the treaty which had been established between the Holy Prophet (sa) and the people of Najran and this was done because the Christians of Njaran had asked for this. The governors would also play a significant role in providing religious teaching
And propagating the message of Islam in their respective areas. Many of them would organise gatherings in the mosque and teach people Qur’an, the Islamic injunctions and etiquettes and they did this in accordance to the practise of the Holy Prophet (sa). According to the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra),
This task was considered as their foremost responsibility. Hence, the governors appointed by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) fulfilled this responsibility in an excellent manner. One historian writes with regards to Ziad bin Labid, who had been appointed as a governor by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) over the region of Hadhrmaut
That every morning, Ziad would come to teach people the Qur’an just as he would teach people the Qur’an prior to him being appointed as a governor. Similarly, through their efforts in training and educating the people, these governors played an important role in spreading and propagating the message of Islam.
It was owing to this practise of theirs that Islam greatly strengthened in the areas which had been newly conquered and also those areas where people had become apostates and rebels. Those areas whose people had recently become Muslim and were unfamiliar with the Islamic injunctions greatly benefitted by the Muallims
Who had been appointed from those regions which were considered as strong centres of Islam, for example, Makkah, Taif and Madinah. They would provide those people with education and training. This would all happen due to the instructions of their Khalifa and leader or where he would particularly appoint these people in different areas
For the purpose of providing them with education and thus they would fulfil this duty. The governors appointed in the various regions were directly responsible for the administrative affairs of their area. If he ever had to go on a travel, he would appoint his deputy, who would oversee the administrative matters until he returned.
An example of this is Hazrat Muhajir bin Abi Umaiyyah was appointed as the governor of Kindah by the Holy Prophet (sa). After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) kept him in his office.
Due to his ill health he was not able to go to Yemen and so he remained in Madinah and appointed Ziad bin Labid to take charge until he was better and returned to Yemen. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also approved of this decision.
Similarly, in Iraq, Hazrat Khalid bin Walid would appoint his deputy until he would return to Hirah. These accounts will continue to be narrated, InshAllah, in the future sermons. All praise is due to Allah We laud Him, we beseech help from Him and ask His protection; we confide in Him, we trust Him alone
And we seek protection against the evils and mischief of our souls and from the bad results of our deeds. Whomsoever He guides on the right path, none can misguide him; and whosoever He declares misled, none can guide him onto the right path.
And we bear witness that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah. We bear witness that Muhammad (sa) is His servant and Messenger. O servants of Allah! May Allah be merciful to you. Verily, Allah commands you to act with justice, to confer benefits upon each other
And to do good to others as one does to one’s kindred and forbids evil which pertain to your own selves and evils which affect others and prohibits revolts against a lawful authority. He warns you against being unmindful. You remember Allah; He too will remember you;
Call Him and He will make a response to your call. And verily divine remembrance is the highest virtue.